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Engineering & Technology Reference

Online ISSN 2056-4007

Engineering & Technology (E&T) Reference is a collection of multidisciplinary technical articles and real-industry case studies.

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Engineering & Technology Reference was last published in 2017.

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A Statistical Analysis of Vulnerability Discovery: Microsoft Operating Systems

Software vulnerabilities that lie within operating systems present significant issues to security professionals and senior managers. Therefore information about the propagation and lifecycle that vulnerabilities exhibit within software systems is crucial to understanding the risks that organisations face. The authors present a review of the software vulnerability literature, an overview of contemporary vulnerability discovery models and a case study centred on the Microsoft Windows series of operating systems.

 Paul Lewis & Jeremy Hilton Centre for Cyber Security and Information Systems, Defence Academy of the UK, Cranfield University, UK 

Security Awareness for Executives

As cyber security moves from a concern of the Information Technology Department to an agenda item in the boardroom and a risk to the organisation, executives require awareness of the issues more than ever. Distilling a complex, multi-faceted, technical subject into language and key points that can be understood by non-technical decision makers is key if an organisation is to implement an effective cyber security strategy. While every organisation will have a unique set of circumstances, varied priorities and differing levels of cyber security maturity, the information provided here will allow for a tailored approach. This document seeks to set out the decisions which must be made regarding the structure of an awareness programme, the requirement for engaging the executive leadership and is intended to detail how the CISO (or other chosen individual or external third party) should engage executives, the key messages that must be shared, and tips for effectively preparing and presenting the information.

Rob Sloan Head of Cyber Content and Data, Dow Jones Risk and Compliance, Dow Jones & Co, New York, USA  

Privacy and Security – A Discussion of the Relationship

Privacy is a topic that has often gone hand in hand with security. Security professionals frequently find themselves straddling this line when involved in surveillance or employee monitoring. There are operational, legislative and ethical considerations to be made as well as the consideration of good security practice and hygiene. Privacy and security have also grown in the mainstream media with most publications carrying some form of opinion or reporting on the topics with carrying degrees of accuracy or hysteria. Good business practice and governance working with a solid understanding of data protection is the route to success. The ethics of surveillance in both business and the public domain will continue to be a much discussed and contentious issue and the public interest is set to grow as mainstream media continue to embrace it. The apparent public fear of surveillance by Government bodies often seems at odds with its willingness to hand over its details for free online or digital services and this lack of understanding also needs to be challenged when discussing privacy; why trust a commercial organisation more than your own security services if the monitoring is part of a strategy to secure a nation and its people, business and infrastructure?

Kenneth Sercy Utility Regulation Specialist, South Carolina Coastal Conservation League, Columbia, USA 

Robert T. Carey Research Associate, Strom Thurmond Institute, Clemson University, Clemson, USA 

Ellen W. Saltzman Research Associate, Strom Thurmond Institute, Clemson University, Clemson, USA

Types of Hydrogen Use in Transportation and Hydrogen Refuelling Stations

Hydrogen has immense potential as an energy vector. Once produced and stored the energy contained can be exploited in energy generation. This exploitation is thought to be able to rival more traditional methods of energy generation such as coal and gas powered power stations. Typically, hydrogen is expected to be deployed in fuel cells; however, there exist options in combusting the hydrogen to release the stored energy. Early markets and economic demand will force the first steps of hydrogen technology. At present road vehicles are seen as the technology of choice, with early adopters keen to take up this technology as the authors move forward to a low carbon future. Parallel to this is the need to have such an infrastructure to support deployment. In this study, they look at a few of the key areas where hydrogen is in transportation and discuss the infrastructure that is required to support the technology.

Dr Daniel Symes & Dr Aman Dhir Centre for Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Research, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham,Birmingham, UK

Natural Ventilation and Space Subdivision: Documentation and Simulation using Building Information Modelling Analytics and a Subsonic Wind Tunnel for Internal Spaces

Natural ventilation is contingent on many factors including wind velocity, size and location of openings, room size and how the room is split by demising walls. The specific subdivision of a room into two spaces of unequal size has an effect on the airflow through the space. In a room such as a bedroom with opposing windows, positive airflow can be achieved through the use of internal openings by way of open doors. However, the placement of these doors and the location of the demising wall can produce very different results. In 1969, Baruch Givoni studied and diagrammed these differing affects in his book Man, Climate and Architecture. This study recreates the eight conditions presented by Givoni and compares them with results from computer simulations utilising building information modelling analytics and a subsonic wind tunnel. It concludes by recognising the importance of rapid visualisation for designers in translating theoretical studies to actual buildings.

Karen M. Kensek & Ryan Hansanuwat School of Architecture, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Control Systems: A Guide to Minimising Risk through Security

This study begins with an introduction into automation systems and their application in industry, with the evolution of distributed control systems over standard information technology (IT) networks and the security risks these pose. It then moves onto a comprehensive breakdown on how security risks are minimised in industrial control systems and how this is achieved through strategies, standards, IT functions and certification programmes. The main focus is on security strategies which in summary target security threats without impacting on production processes; the protection concept detailed comprises of general defence strategies which are intended to resist a variety of attacks. The outcome of these areas is how they reduce risk in control systems with a concluding statement that covers implementing security strategies in security solutions. All acronyms used throughout will be detailed in the introduction.

Paul Hingley &Tom Hammond Safety-Condition Monitoring and Industrial IT Security, Siemens Industry Sector, Siemens, UK

A Review of Nuclear Power within the United Kingdom

This paper presents an overview of nuclear power within the UK. First a brief summary of the evolution of NPPs is given. The importance of the electricity grid to the NPP and vice-versa is highlighted. The need for reliable and secure electrical supplies to power the safety systems of the NPP is of vital importance. Following the lessons learned from the post Fukishima Daiichi nuclear accident, a review of the newly proposed safety systems associated with the new generation of nuclear power reactor design is presented. These will possess multiple levels of redundant “passive” safety systems to cater for the loss of all power supplies to the NPP and attempt to keep the reactor core cooled.

Richard Poole, Technology Application Engineer (HVDC Protection and Control), National Grid, Electricity Transmission PLC UK



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Engineering & Technology Reference is a new, multidisciplinary, online reference source being developed by the IET to provide practical technical knowledge and insight into technology solutions.

Its goal is to help practitioners, researchers and students at all levels understand and solve the technological challenges that they encounter on a day-to-day basis and to improve engineering know-how, with its growing collection of articles and case studies that include lessons learnt and real-world insights. 

Each reference article provides a detailed description of the technology being used in a specific area, how it works, the challenges faced and the solutions adopted. 

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Built Environment
BIM; Intelligent Buildings; Energy Efficiency; Vehicle Infrastructures; Safety Issues; and Resource Efficiency

Design & Production
Additive Manufacturing; Energy Consumption; Inclusive Design; Sustainable Manufacturing; Robotics and Autonomous Systems; and Innovation to Commercialisation

Renewable Energies (Wind, Solar, Hydro, Biofuel); Smart Grids; Energy Security; Power Electronics, Production; Energy Networks; and Energy Storage

Information & Communications
Cyber Security; Cloud Computing; Internet of Things; Control Engineering; Data Centres; Green ICT; Mobile Data; Next Generation Networks; Quality Software; Wireless and Spectrum

Autonomous Vehicles; Hybrid/Electric Vehicles; Security and Risk; Transport Asset Management; Marine Engineering; Economic Growth; Intelligent Transportation Systems; High Speed Rail.


We are searching for leading practitioners and subject experts for the following roles:
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