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Volume 116
Issue 1
Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers
Volume 116, Issue 1, January 1969
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Volume 126 (1979)

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Volume 116, Issue 1
January 1969
Inaugural address. The vital spark
 Author(s): J.M. Meek
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 1 –12
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0001
 Type: Article
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Chairman's address: Electronics Division. Science and profit in the electronics industry
 Author(s): R.J. Clayton
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 13 –21
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0002
 Type: Article
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Development, design and test procedures for random generators using chaincodes
 Author(s): M.G. Hartley
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 22 –26
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0003
 Type: Article
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The paper considers the development, design and test procedures for a range of randompulse generators which exploit the properties of chaincodes. While the generators were developed for simulation of roadtraffic situations, they have wide applications in the simulation of the central processors of digital computers and the testing of digital control systems. The generators operate at high speed in a parallel fashion. They require only a very limited number of logical elements, and outputpulse patterns may be repeated starting at any point.
Evaluation of performance of random generators employing chaincodes
 Author(s): M.G. Hartley
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 27 –34
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0004
 Type: Article
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The objective of this paper is to contrast random generators built by Redshaw and Robinson with simpler generators devised by the author. The test procedures laid down in an earlier paper are followed. Both types of random generator were designed for the simulation of random arrivals of vehicles at roadtraffic intersections. There is, however, a wide variety of other applications for such generators. These include messageswitching simulation, and the simulation of the operation of the central processor of a multiprogram computer. The tests performed indicated that both classes of generator satisfied criteria for randomness, provided that care was exercised at the design stage.
Transistorfeedbackamplifier stabilisation using admittance measurements
 Author(s): H.G. Brierley
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 35 –42
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0005
 Type: Article
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A method is described for stabilising a singleloop negativefeedback transistor amplifier based on measurements of a chosen shortcircuitstable closedloop drivingpoint admittance between two terminals within the amplifier. A correcting network is synthetised, the admittance of which, when added to the measured admittance, prevents zero encirclement by the locus of the total admittance by an adequate margin. Formulas are given enabling margins against zero encirclement to be interpreted in terms of movements of corner frequencies associated with a frequently used internal amplifier configuration. The method is demonstrated to be straightforward for an amplifier requiring measurements up to 20MHz, and the admittance margins obtained are compared with margins obtained from loopgain measurements.
Analysis of the statistics and threshold of the phaselock loop
 Author(s): R. Harrison
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 43 –52
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0006
 Type: Article
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The meansquare value of the phase error in the phaselock loop is determined from the linear differential equation. Conditions are then derived, for its minimisation, with an integral plus proportional filter in the loop, for an input consisting of an f.m. f.d.m. carrier plus thermal noise. The statistics of the phase error are then deduced using the FokkerPlanck technique for an arbitrary loop filter. From the statistics, the loss of lock rate is derived and each loss of lock is assumed to produce an inpulse in the baseband. The well known result of Rice is used to determine the output signal/noise ratio, and the point of threshold arising from the loss of lock is shown.
Bandpass LC filters having prescribed amplitude and nearly constant groupdelay characteristics
 Author(s): L.J. Stagg
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 53 –58
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0007
 Type: Article
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The paper describes the synthesis of arithmetically symmetrical, broadband LC filters having prescribed amplitude response and nearly constant group delay, with particular reference to i.f. filters for radiorelay systems. These filters must suppress unwanted signals, particularly the adjacent carrier frequencies, without significantly distorting the required signal. For low distortion, the filters must have both flat amplitude and constant groupdelay responses over the passband centre. Filters synthetised for 1800 and 960channel systems have satisfied these requirements, the transferfunction design and measured characteristics of the filter for the 960channel system being given as an example. The filters have the advantages that they can be inserted in the i.f. chain without the need for further phase equalisation, and that they give improved amplitude responses compared with conventional filter and equaliser combinations.
Transformed hypergeometric transmission lines
 Author(s): A.G.J. Holt and P. Bowron
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 59 –64
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0008
 Type: Article
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A transformation procedure is described for determining a set of nonautonomic distributions which are complementary to previously described general classes of lines. A table of these distributions is presented, together with the conditions necessary for their evaluation. In particular, for the Gaussian distributed RC line, which is inherent, for example, in some diffusedsemiconductor realisations, a solution is obtained in terms of a convergent confluent hypergeometric series which is equivalent to an earlier solution in terms of Hermite polynomials. Finally, its performance is evaluated and experimentally compared with a well known distribution.
Drivingpointfunction synthesis using nonuniform lines
 Author(s): J.C. Giguere ; M.N.S. Swamy ; B.B. Bhattacharyya
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 65 –70
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0009
 Type: Article
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Necessary and sufficient conditions for the synthesis of a drivingpoint function using any two kinds of oneport impedances are presented, and the result is used to develop a procedure for synthetising a drivingpoint function using tapered lines. The result also provides a short proof for O'Shea's necessary and sufficient conditions for the realisation of a drivingpoint function using symmetric structures. It is shown that any impedance which can be realised using symmetric lines may always be realised using the oneport impedances of the nonuniform transmission lines used in the construction of the symmetric lines. It is shown that all the existing synthesis procedures for the realisation of a drivingpoint function using any two oneport impedances are special cases of the general procedure advanced in this paper. Necessary and sufficient conditions for realising a drivingpoint function as a cascade of symmetric structures have been advanced. These are shown to be equivalent to those for realising the same drivingpoint function using the open and shortcircuit impedances of a symmetric structure. A procedure for such a cascade synthesis is advanced. If the structure is a uniform line, it provides a simple alternative to Wyndrum's cascadesynthesis procedure. An illustrative example is also included. By using known transformations, all the results may be applied to other types of lines such as lossless lines.
Wedgediffraction functions and their use in quasioptics
 Author(s): L. Lewin
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 71 –76
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0010
 Type: Article
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Asymptotic and other formulas are derived ab initio for the field diffracted by a perfectly conducting wedge when illuminated by a line source. In the transition zone between lit and shadowed regions, the field is decomposed into image and diffraction terms which enable the formulas to be used throughout the region for selfconsistent field analyses. The wedgediffraction functions are finding a growing application in the investigation of electromagnetic problems in which the dimensions are too large for waveguidemode analysis, but too small for geometric optics to apply. Various formulas are scattered throughout the literature. In this paper, they are derived from first principles and presented in a form in which the areas of use are indicated, and the important transition zone near a shadow boundary is explained in some detail.
Representation of noise sources in pumped nonlinear systems
 Author(s): V.K. Prabhu
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 77 –83
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0011
 Type: Article
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Several different methods have been used to represent physical sources of noise at a frequency ω_{0} in a linear 2port network, and this representation usually simplifies the analysis of propagation of noise through the network when it is connected to another network or a set of networks. It is shown that similar methods can be used to represent physical sources of noise in a nonlinear network when it is pumped by a strong signal and when the noise sources present in the system are small. In such a case, the device acts as a linear system to the noise and the terminal noise components are linearly related. This kind of representation simplifies the noise analysis of such systems and enables us to investigate how the noise propagates through the system. It will be shown that, at each port, for each frequency ω_{0} present in the system, it is necessary to have two equivalent noise sources rather than the one that is required in circuit theory of linear noisy networks.
Inhomogeneous dielectric filling to simulate curvature in model Earthionosphere waveguide
 Author(s): E. Bahar
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 84 –86
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0012
 Type: Article
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A careful study of the variation of the permittivity of synthetic foam materials under compression has led to a physically realisable solution to the problem of synthetising an inhomogeneous medium of propagation used to simulate curvature artificially in a microwave model of the Earthionosphere waveguide.
Microwave absorption and series resistance of siliconmesa parametricamplifier diodes
 Author(s): J.W. Bandler
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 86 –87
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0013
 Type: Article
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Stability of passive timevariable circuits
 Author(s): P.J. Graham and R.W. Newcomb
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 87 –88
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0014
 Type: Article
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Construction of a sensitive microwave noise spectrometer
 Author(s): P.I. Somlo ; W.A. Gambling ; D.M. Kitching
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, page: 88 –88
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0015
 Type: Article
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Chairman's address: Power Division. Engineering unlimited
 Author(s): F.J. Lane
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 89 –95
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0016
 Type: Article
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Singlephase autoreclosure of extrahighvoltage transmission lines. An investigation into the residual fault current and recovery voltage
 Author(s): Farouk A.M. Rizk
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 96 –100
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0017
 Type: Article
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The success of singlephase autoreclosure of extrahighvoltage transmission lines is based on the possibility of self extinction of the secondary arc, in spite of the influence of the sound phases. The residual fault current and the recovery voltage of the switched phase are among the most essential factors affecting self extinction of the residual fault.In this paper, a method is developed for the calculation of the recovery voltage and residual fault current during singlepole switching. The power system investigated consists of a remote power station interconnected to a large electrical system, through a singlecircuit extrahighvoltage transmission line. The analysis includes the effect of fault location, line length, station parameters, transmissionline loading and the electromechanical swing subsequent to fault occurrence. The effects of the above factors on recovery voltage and residual current are investigated on the basis of numerical computations for a 500 kV transmission system.
Calculation of steadystate temperature rise of watercooled buried cables using a new iterative method
 Author(s): D.F. Binns
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 101 –106
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0018
 Type: Article
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The paper describes a new iterative method for calculating the steadystate temperature rise of watercooled cables buried in a homogeneous soil. Cables and water pipes are represented by line heat sources and sinks of variable magnitude and position, and a computer program is used to calculate the necessary magnitudes and positions of the heat sources and sinks needed to represent the temperature distribution accurately. Open boundaries are used, and this avoids possible errors resulting from the usual practice of imposing isothermal surfaces at finite distances from the cables. It allows a check to be made on boundary conditions used for relaxation calculations or electrolytictank measurements. However, the method of analysis described here is considered superior to relaxation for calculating cable temperature rise in a homogeneous soil. A detailed example is given of a calculation carried out at one point in a cable run, including the complete temperature distribution in the soil. A technique is then outlined for applying the method at various points along a cable run, and consequently for calculating the rate of water flow required to maintain an acceptable conductor temperature.
Discussion on “Bundle conductors on grid lines in England and Wales”
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 107 –110
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0019
 Type: Article
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Discussion on “Prediction of inductionmotor dynamic performance in power systems”
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 111 –112
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0020
 Type: Article
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Dividedwindingrotor synchronous generator. A comparison of simulated 30 MW conventional and dividedwindingrotor turbogenerators
 Author(s): J.A. Soper and A.R. Fagg
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 113 –126
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0021
 Type: Article
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Experiment with a 5kVA machine showed the feasibility of a new form of turbogenerator using a rotor winding of two sections, in X formation, controlling the torque and reactive requirements separately.The performance of a conventionally wound rotor turbogenerator (c.w.r.) of 30MW size, described by Shackshaft, is compared with that of a dividedwindingrotor (d.w.r.) arrangement (CEGB patent application 2240/65) of the same machine.The analogue simulation shows that the d.w.r. can control power and reactive output satisfactorily, without altering the rotor position in relation to the generator airgap flux. Fully rated stator current at leading power factor can be obtained continuously from no load to full load.The speed of response of the d.w.r.generator reactive power to a step change of infinitebusbar voltage is, on average, twice that of the c.w.r. Turbogenerator stability is improved, and is shown to be independent of reactive generation or absorption, being affected only by activepower generation.Transientstability comparisons are made by simulating 3phase shortcircuit faults close up to the highvoltage busbar, with low and highimpedance connections to the infinite busbar.The c.w.r. simulation at full load with full excitation withstands a fault duration of 0.45s, which comes down, with reducing excitation, to 0.32s when Q_{u} = − 0.225 p.u. and rotor angle = 70°; 0.2s when Q_{u} = − 0.6 p.u. and rotor angle = 100°; and less than 0.1 s when Q_{u} = − 0.9 p.u. and rotor angle = 120°.Comparable d.w.r. simulation of load and excitation conditions all require a fault duration exceeding 0.4s to cause instability. Even the Q_{u} = − 2.3 p.u. condition is simulated without deterioration of control, and requires 0.4s fault duration to cause instability.The highimpedance connection to the infinitebusbar simulation shows, in general, that the maximum fault duration for each type of generator is reduced by 0.1s.
Current distribution in sheet and foilwound transformers
 Author(s): N. Mullineux ; J.R. Reed ; I.J. Whyte
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 127 –129
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0022
 Type: Article
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In foilwound transformers, the width of the foil used in one winding is generally the full winding height of the transformer so that the current density is nonuniform. A mathematical model is set up for such transformers, and the current density is obtained as the solution to an integral equation. A method of solution suitable for use on a digital computer is outlined.
Irish Branch: Chairman's address. The electrical engineer in the production industry
 Author(s): F.E. Dukes
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 130 –131
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0023
 Type: Article
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NorthWestern Centre: Chairman's address. Earthing for safety
 Author(s): F. Mather
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 131 –133
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0024
 Type: Article
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Eddycurrent effects in solid unslotted iron rotors
 Author(s): J.L. Woodward and R.A. Jamieson
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 133 –135
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0025
 Type: Article
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Static sampling distance relay
 Author(s): A. Chandrasekaran ; K.S. Mehta ; P.G. McLaren
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 135 –136
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0026
 Type: Article
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Transient response and transient stability of power systems
 Author(s): A. Kuppurajulu ; S.L. Surana ; M.V. Hariharan
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, page: 136 –136
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0027
 Type: Article
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Chairman's address: Control & Automation Division. The transition from research to development in control
 Author(s): J.H. Westcott
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 137 –144
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0028
 Type: Article
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Absolute stability of a class of nonlinear sampleddata systems
 Author(s): J.I. Soliman and H. Kwoh
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 145 –148
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0029
 Type: Article
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The present investigation studies the problem of absolute stability of a class of nonlinear sampleddata control systems with or without integrators in the loop. An absolutestability criterion has been obtained by the second method of Lyapunov. The same stability criterion has been derived previously by the authors via the Popov approach. The criterion is shown to be a sufficient condition for the existence of a certain type of Lyapunov function which assures globalasymptotic stability of the class of systems under investigation. In contrast to previous results, the criterion does not place any restriction on the number of integrators in the loop. A systematic stepbystep method for applying the inequality is given, and an example illustrating the application of this frequencydomain inequality and a comparison with previous results are presented. The method is found to be versatile and more effective, and, in general, a better stability boundary can be obtained.
Discussion on CEGB automatic systemcontrol experiment in the southwestern region
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 149 –152
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0030
 Type: Article
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Discrete positivereal functions and their application to system stability
 Author(s): L. Hitz and B.D.O. Anderson
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 153 –155
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0031
 Type: Article
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A class of discretetime transferfunction matrices termed discrete positivereal matrices is defined, and a system theoretic description of them is given, analogous to that for ordinary positivereal matrices. This description is applied to analysing the stability of a discretetime system with linear forward part, and timevarying memoryless feedback.
Representation of magnetisation curves over extensive range by rationalfraction approximations
 Author(s): G.F.T. Widger
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 156 –160
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0032
 Type: Article
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The paper presents a simple mathematical expression which enables representation of all types of magnetisation curves over a very wide range. The equation given is ideally suited for problems which require use of the B/H curve many times, since calculations using it require only a few operations of the basic arithmetic adding, multiplying and dividing.Although the equation is not linear in all the parameters, a method for obtaining the best parameters, in which the problem is first linearised and then restored to its original nonlinear form by a system of iteration, is described.A discussion of the meaning of the best parameters of the equation to fit the data curve, whether it is to be read fromB to H, or H to B, or both ways, is given.Comparison is given between several saturation curves and their mathematical counterparts over magnetising m.m.f. from zero to, in one case, 300000AT/m.
SouthEast Scotland SubCentre: Chairman's address
 Author(s): A.J. Bode
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, page: 160 –160
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0033
 Type: Article
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D.C. corona on smooth conductors in air. Steadystate analysis of the ionisation layer
 Author(s): M.P. Sarma and W. Janischewskyj
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 161 –166
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0034
 Type: Article
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A theoretical analysis of the electricfield distribution in the ionisation layer of a d.c. corona discharge under equivalent steadystate conditions is presented for both positive and negative polarities of the conductor. Using available experimental data on ionisation and attachment coefficients in air, the condition for corona onset is analysed on the basis of the Townsend theory. Subsequently, the field distribution in the corona layer is determined for different values of total equivalent steadystate corona current.
Mersey and North Wales Centre: Chairman's address. The engineer
 Author(s): E.F. Duncan
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 167 –168
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0035
 Type: Article
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Potential functions for a compressible and anisotropic plasma medium
 Author(s): Hollis C. Chen
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 169 –172
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0036
 Type: Article
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It is shown that, in a compressible and anisotropic plasma medium when both electric and magnetic current sources are present, the longitudinal components of the electric and magnetic fields and the pressure variation satisfy the inhomogeneous coupled wave equations. Generalised potential functions for the solution of such equations are presented. The complicated, difficult problem of analysing sources radiating in a compressible and anisotropic plasma is thus reduced to the solution of Helmholtz equations. Expressions for the determination of the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields with sources are also derived. As an application of the general formulas, a complete solution for a magnetic line source is worked out in detail.
Electromagnetically actuated, fastclosing switch using polythene as the main dielectric
 Author(s): P.J. Rogers and H.R. Whittle
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, p. 173 –179
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0037
 Type: Article
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A switch consisting of two electrodes separated by a polythene sheet and which is closed by driving a rivet through the dielectric, so as to firmly join the electrodes, has operated in 40kV circuits with peak currents up to 600kA and passing a total charge of 2500 coulombs. The switch closes in about 50μs with shottoshot variations of ± 1 μs. The metaltometal contact has a d.c. resistance of about 1 μ Ω. The rivet is driven by a hammer repelled from a fixed coil which is pulseenergised from an auxiliary capacitor
Absolute velocity of d.c. energy transmission by an electromagnetic field between two conductors and implications of relativity
 Author(s): H.M. Barlow
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 116, Issue 1, page: 180 –180
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1969.0038
 Type: Article
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