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Volume 110
Issue 10
Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers
Volume 110, Issue 10, October 1963
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Volume 126 (1979)

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Volume 110 (1963)
Volume 110, Issue 10
October 1963
Cylindrical capacitive obstacles in a waveguide
 Author(s): R.N. Franklin and G.H. Bryant
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1709 –1719
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0244
 Type: Article
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Scattering from a cylindrical metallic object placed centrally in a waveguide so that its axis is parallel to the transverse magnetic field of the dominant mode is shown to give rise to two field types in the scattered waves, which are dipole and isotropic in nature. On the other hand, a dielectric rod similarly placed shows only dipole scattering. A method is presented which uses a potential theory to describe dipole scattering from metallic, dielectric and magnetic obstacles, and it is further shown that the theory may be used to derive in a simple manner the dipole scattering from a coaxial obstacle which may consist of a metal rod with a dielectric or magnetic sleeve, or coaxial combinations of dielectric and magnetic materials.Isotropic scattering is important in a coaxial system only when the core is a good conductor, and it is shown by an electromagnetic solution that its magnitude is associated only with the radius of the metal core, any dielectric outer sleeve having negligible effect, provided that the overall radius is sufficiently small.
Phase characteristics of h.f. radio waves received after propagation by the ionosphere
 Author(s): C.J. Hughes and D.W. Morris
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1720 –1734
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0245
 Type: Article
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p.
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A radio wave after reflection from the ionosphere is considered to consist of a specularly reflected component plus a varying diffracted component. The ratio of the power in the specular component to that in the diffracted component is of interest in considering the design and performance of largeaperture receiving arrays. A theoretical treatment is presented whereby this ratio can be derived from the probability distribution of the phase difference between the signals received at two widely spaced aerials. Apparatus for the determination of the phasedifference distribution is described, and the experimental technique developed for using the apparatus is discussed.The results of measurements made on typical h.f. transmissions are presented and discussed in relation to known ionospheric phenomena. Consideration is also given to the use of the techniques for the determination of the vertical arrival angle and the angular spread of the cone of radiation of a received signal.
Lowlightlevel television
 Author(s): R.L. Beurle
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1735 –1746
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0246
 Type: Article
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p.
1735
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The paper summarizes the fundamental limitations set by the available light and the efficiency of the photocathodes available at present, and considers in detail how closely existing types of camera tube and image intensifier can approach this fundamental limit. There are many possibilities, from the simple adaptation of existing broadcast tubes to the combination of highgain image intensifiers with conventional television camera tubes, either by optic or fibre optic coupling or by building the two into the same vacuum envelope. Between these, one may say that the problems of lowlightlevel television are well on the way to being solved within the limits set by the factors already referred to.
Photoconductive probe for measuring electromagnetic fields
 Author(s): Keigo lizuka
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1747 –1754
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0247
 Type: Article
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p.
1747
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Probes in which the usual connecting leads to the detector have been eliminated have been constructed for measuring the intensity of an electromagnetic field. The new devices are modulated reradiating or scattering antennas that consist of either a small dipole (for measuring the electric field) or a small shielded loop (for measuring the magnetic field) centreloaded with a photocell illuminated by a chopped beam of light. The modulated scattered signal from the probe is proportional either to the component of the Efield which is parallel to the axis of the dipole, or to the component of the Hfield which is perpendicular to the plane of the shielded loop. The scattered signal is received by an additional antenna or by the same antenna as is used for transmission. The received signal is amplified by a lockin amplifier.The same principle has also been applied to the measurement of the distribution of current along an antenna of arbitrary shape. This was accomplished by sliding a small shieldedloop probe, centreloaded with a photocell, along the antenna. A very small and constant gap was maintained between the probe and the antenna. The modulation factor of the scattered signal was determined from the measured instantaneous impedance of the photocell.Both the nearfield pattern of a λ/2 dipole antenna and the distribution of current along the antenna as measured with these optical probes are in general agreement with theory. The properties of several other types of probes based on the same principle were also explored.
Derivation of excitation coefficients for Chebyshev arrays
 Author(s): Charles J. Drane
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1755 –1758
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0248
 Type: Article
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p.
1755
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An arrangement of isotropic elements, uniformly spaced at a half wavelength or greater and suitably excited, was used by Dolph to obtain optimum radiation patterns for linear broadside arrays. Riblet generalized the technique and extended it to include arrays of odd numbers of elements with uniform spacing of less than a half wavelength. DuHamel demonstrated that the calculation of the excitation coefficients for an array of 2n + 1 elements is equivalent to that of determining the coefficients b_{m} in the expressionT_{n}(ax + b) = Σ_{m=0}^{n} b_{m}T_{m}(x) (n > 0),where T_{m}(X) = cos (m cos^{−1}x), x ≤ 1, m ≥ 0, and a and b are constants. An expression of simpler and more convenient form than that of DuHamel's formulae has been provided by Salzer, and rederived rather simply by Brown. It is the purpose of the paper to present two alternative formulae for b_{m}. The first is recursive, consisting of a single summation with coefficients involving the sum of only two binomial coefficients, and of simpler form than that of Salzer. The second, also a single summation of reasonably simple quantities, is similar to a recently announced formulation by Brown, except that all the coefficients b_{m} are obtainable from the one expression.
Microwave bridge reflectometer
 Author(s): C.S. Gledhill and B.P. Walker
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1759 –1763
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0249
 Type: Article
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p.
1759
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A form of the microwave reflectometer which yields a reflectioncoefficient angle as well as modulus is discussed and its analysis presented.A simple compensation method is described whereby the measurement errors due to imperfect performance of the directional couplers can partially be eliminated and partially be allowed for.Finally, the measurement accuracy obtainable from this reflectometer system is shown to be approximately that obtainable from the conventional slotted waveguide section, and hence the system provides an alternative to the slotted section at the millimetre wavelengths.
Theory of exponentially tapered RC transmission lines for phaseshift oscillators
 Author(s): S.C. Dutta Roy
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1764 –1770
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0250
 Type: Article
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p.
1764
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Tapered RC transmission lines are useful in phaseshift oscillators, because they permit (i) a great reduction in the required gain of the active device (vacuum tube or transistor) and (ii) generation of frequencies up to a few megacycles per second. They are particularly useful for microminiature oscillator circuits because of their small size and the possibility of integration with the active device, which is a transistor. In the paper, a general, exponentially tapered RC line is analysed to find expressions for the current and voltage at any point of the line. These are used to deduce an equation giving the frequency of phase reversal and an expression for the attenuation at this frequency, for the possible combinations of generator and load impedances that are of practical interest. In general, the frequencydetermining equation is transcendental and highly involved. An approximation is developed in the paper for smalltaper parameters; using this approximation, it has been shown that, for a particular frequency, there exists an optimum combination of load impedance and taper parameter for which the attenuation is a minimum.Each special case is illustrated by a numerical example, and the results are verified by experiment.
Laser mixer and I.F. amplifier
 Author(s): V.A. Babits
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, page: 1770 –1770
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0251
 Type: Article
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p.
1770
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Use of matrix theory in the analysis of linear feedback circuits
 Author(s): M.A. Laughton
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1771 –1772
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0252
 Type: Article
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p.
1771
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Stray losses in squirrelcage induction motors. Validity of the reverserotation test method
 Author(s): B.J. Chalmers and A.C. Williamson
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1773 –1777
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0253
 Type: Article
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p.
1773
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The paper describes the sources and components of stray load losses in squirrelcage induction motors and examines the validity of the reverserotation test method which has previously been recommended as the best available method for measuring the loss.It is shown that this method of test is based on assumptions which are fundamentally incorrect, and that the consequent errors in measured loss will be small only if the slot harmonics produce the major proportion of the total highfrequency stray loss. In other cases, with the particular design features detailed in the paper, the discrepancies can be significant.It is concluded that the validity of the test when applied to large motors is open to some doubt.
Discussion on “The controlled retardation of Ward Leonard drives”
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, page: 1778 –1778
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0254
 Type: Article
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p.
1778
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Application of mode theory to the analysis of machine systems
 Author(s): J. Hiller
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1779 –1786
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0255
 Type: Article
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p.
1779
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The mode theory approach is shown to lead to a complete solution of problems involving machine systems under the normal assumptions necessary to give linear differential equations. Only two basic matrix operations, namely inversion and latent root evaluation, suffice to enable determination of the response to any input applied at any set of terminals.It is shown that there are four distinct types of input for a multivariate system and in some cases superposition does not apply. The effects of open and shortcircuits and of changes in the circuit parameters are analysed in terms of this classification.An indication is given of how the constants of a system may be evaluated if the modes are known.
Discussion on “Some improved lead alloys for cable sheathing”
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1786 –1790
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0256
 Type: Article
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p.
1786
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Discussion on “Highvoltage powertransformer insulation”
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1791 –1798
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0257
 Type: Article
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p.
1791
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Discussion on “Multigenerator transientstability performance under fault conditions”
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1799 –1804
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0258
 Type: Article
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p.
1799
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(6)
Nuclear instrumentation. A review of progress
 Author(s): Denis Taylor
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1805 –1817
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0259
 Type: Article
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p.
1805
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(13)
Transducers for positional measuring systems a review of progress
 Author(s): R.C. Brewer
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1818 –1828
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0260
 Type: Article
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p.
1818
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Experimental thermoelectric generator
 Author(s): S.M. Third and G.E. Hare
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1829 –1836
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0261
 Type: Article
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p.
1829
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A lowpower device, simulating a section from a megawattoutput generator, has been built to test a new idea for the arrangement of thermoelements around a cylindrical pipe. The device uses bismuth telluride type thermoelements and operates between a condensing vapour source at 250° C and a sink of cooling water at about 20° C. The maximum measured efficiency was 2.1% at 13 W output.The low efficiency is due partly to high contact resistances inside the generator, partly to the use of lowthermalconductivity material (stainless steel) for the body of the generator, and partly to a thermoelectric figure of merit giving zT of about 0.6. Until these factors are improved, an efficiency greater than 2.5% cannot be expected theoretically. Bypass heat losses appear to be insignificant, and improvements in contact techniques and use of a material such as copper for the body of the generator should lead to efficiencies of about 5%.
Unconventional methods of electricity generation
 Author(s): P.D. Dunn and J.K. Wright
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1837 –1852
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0262
 Type: Article
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p.
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The paper sets out the physical principles on which the magnetohydrodynamic, thermoelectric, and thermionic generators, and the fuel cell are based. Other methods of generation, including the solar cell, are also mentioned. The limitation of the conventional steam turboalternator for largescale electricity generation is pointed out, and the desirability of developing highertemperature plant to be used in conjunction with the conventional generation plant is shown. The first three methods can be used in this role. In addition, there are possible fields of application where efficiency is not of prime importance, e.g. space vehicles.
Discussion on “Unconventional methods of electricity generation”
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1853 –1854
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0263
 Type: Article
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p.
1853
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Application of the second method of Lyapunov to the stability of certain position control systems containing a backe.m.f. nonlinearity
 Author(s): F. Fallside and J.O.C. Ezeilo
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1855 –1866
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0264
 Type: Article
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p.
1855
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In the linearized analysis of control systems containing a d.c. fieldexcited motor the armature current is assumed constant. The effect of armature backe.m.f. is to introduce a twovariable (field current, motor speed) nonlinearity into the system equation. The second method of Lyapunov is used in the paper to investigate the effect of this nonlinearity on the stability of certain position control systems. The system equations studied are of second, third and fourthorder, for various types of stabilization and lag configurations.A summary of the Lyapunov method is given. The Lyapunov functions V employed are simple quadratic functions, and asymptotic stability results are determined from negative semidefinite derivatives V using the BarbaŠin limit point argument. A choice method for V enables asymptotic stability in the large to be established for a number of second and thirdorder systems conditional on the RouthHurwitz criteria for the linearized systems; for fourthorder cases an amplitudedependent condition is introduced in addition. Analoguecomputer results indicate that the stability of the fourthorder cases is not amplitudedependent. The weakness is due to the simple form of Lyapunov function employed.The results establish the validity of a linearized stability analysis for certain systems containing this type of nonlinearity and imply it for others.
Effect of a backe.m.f. nonlinearity on responses of a secondorder position control system
 Author(s): F. Fallside and M.R. Patel
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1867 –1881
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0265
 Type: Article
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p.
1867
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In the linearized analysis of control systems containing a d.c. fieldexcited motor the armature current is assumed constant, allowing motor torque to be taken proportional to field current. Since, in practice, this introduces the complication of current forcing to overcome variations caused by motor backe.m.f., the question arises of how much armature current forcing, or constancy, is necessary to give desirable system responses.The variation introduces a twovariable (field current, motor speed) nonlinearity into the system equation. The paper investigates the effect of the nonlinearity on the step function and ramp and frequency responses of an otherwise ideal outputvelocitystabilized secondorder position control system. Increase of the nonlinearity is initially similar to increased system damping until a heavily nonlinear and undesirable type of response is reached; unstable ramp responses can occur. There is, however, a well defined boundary marking the onset of the latter responses; below it responses are comparable with linear, particularly for critical or heavy damping.The range of responses is investigated, together with armaturecurrent behaviour during them. This, together with the boundaries, gives a specification of armature supply requirements for a desirable response.The effects of load viscous friction and fieldcurrent saturation are also investigated.
Polynomialroot solver and rootlocus plotter
 Author(s): E.M. Deeley
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1882 –1886
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0266
 Type: Article
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p.
1882
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An analogue method is described for the solution of polynomial equations having complex roots. The method is an adaptation of the known technique of spiral scanning in the complex plane, identified by the variable s, whereby exponentially decreasing oscillatory waveforms are identified with the various powers of s. The required waveforms are generated using conventional linear computing units in such a way that the phase and amplitude relationships are maintained to an accuracy of within 2% throughout each scan. The voltage analogues of the two parts of the polynomial are formed by adding these waveforms in the proportions required by the coefficients. A zero detector generates a short pulse whenever either of these voltages is zero, and this pulse is used to modulate a c.r.t. display. The intersection of the resulting loci of points on the display, being points at which both parts are simultaneously zero, represents the roots of the polynomial.By providing two coefficientsetting potentiometers for each term in the polynomial, the loci of the roots due to, for example, parameter variation in a feedback servomechanism, can be determined. The system described is repetitive at 10 scans/sec and has been used for polynomials of up to the 6th order. For most functions, the accuracy with which the two parts of the root can be determined is within 3% of the maximum value of the scanned variable s.
Digital transfer voltmeters: principles and error characteristics
 Author(s): F. Deist and R. Kitai
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1887 –1904
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0267
 Type: Article
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p.
1887
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(18)
Precision measurements of the r.m.s. value of a fluctuating voltage may be made using sampling and digital techniques. Although considerably more complex than analogue methods, the sampling voltmeter has substantial advantages in many respects. The paper discusses the principles on which the meter is based. Its error characteristics are derived and analysed for four periodic waveforms and for white noise. Using the results of the error analysis, design criteria are discussed. Finally, the principal requirements for a specialpurpose digital computer to produce the meter reading are established.
Selfgenerating h.f. carrier feedback anemometer
 Author(s): M.J. Somerville and G.F. Turnbull
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1905 –1914
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0268
 Type: Article
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p.
1905
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(10)
A measuringcircuit a.c.carrier technique is described, in which a feedback measuring system is selfgenerating with respect to the carrier and involves neither phasesensitive detector nor carrier modulator stages, so that relatively simple and reliable circuits can be designed.The technique is described in connection with its application to a hotwire anemometer, circuit stability and optimumdesign considerations being dealt with in detail, leading to the design of a simple practical circuit.
A compact lowpressure trigatron
 Author(s): D.A. Swift
 Source: Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Volume 110, Issue 10, p. 1915 –1920
 DOI: 10.1049/piee.1963.0269
 Type: Article
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p.
1915
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The constructional details and operational characteristics of a 10kV 100kA lowpressure switch, developed for use in research on rotating plasmas, are given. This switch, employing a single parallelplate gap with a triggering pin built into the centre of one electrode, has a concentric cylindrical return path made integral with a currentmeasuring device. The switch is easily triggerable, operates over a very wide voltage range, has a low inductance, and is virtually silent, both audibly and electrically. From an investigation of the conditions affecting closing time and jitter, it is concluded that the device is feasible for synchronous switching, using several switches in parallel paths.A brief account is given of the development, to date, of a highervoltage switch suitable for application, in ten parallel paths, to a large capacitor bank.The conducting channel of the switch has been observed by streak photography to spread radially from the trigger with a velocity of 1 2 × 10^{6} cm/s. This value is consistent with that obtained in the measurement of the time variation of switchgap inductance, for which a technique was developed to isolate the inductive from the noninductive voltage drop. A theoretical basis of the triggering mechanism is presented.
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