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Volume 107
Issue 35
Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering
Volume 107, Issue 35, October 1960
Volumes & issues:
Volume 107, Issue 35
October 1960
Electricity meters. A review of progress
 Author(s): G.F. Shotter
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 401 –404
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0090
 Type: Article
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p.
401
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Discussion on “An electrostatic dust monitor”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, page: 404 –404
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0091
 Type: Article
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p.
404
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The impulse strength of fullyimpregnatedpaper dielectrics as used in highvoltage cables
 Author(s): B. Salvage and J.A.M. Gibbons
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 405 –414
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0092
 Type: Article
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p.
405
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An investigation into the impulse strengths of model cables and cableimpregnating oils and compounds is described. In particular, the effects of the density, air impermeability and thickness of the paper and the dielectric thickness and temperature of the impregnant have been studied.Special papers possessing a combination of properties designed to give a high impulse strength have been incorporated in an experimental oilfilled cable and the improvements obtained closely approach those indicated by measurements on model cables.An impulse breakdown mechanism in a fullyimpregnatedpaper cable dielectric is suggested whereby the impulse strength, although it may be varied by changing the properties of the paper, is shown to be primarily dependent on the impulse strength of the impregnant.
Discussion on “The impulse strength of fullyimpregnatedpaper dielectrics as used in highvoltage cables” before the Supply Section, 9th March 1960
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 415 –418
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0093
 Type: Article
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p.
415
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Discussion on “The impulse strength of fullyimpregnatedpaper dielectrics as used in highvoltage cables” before the North Midland Centre, at York, 5th April, 1960
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 418 –419
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0094
 Type: Article
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p.
418
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The authors' reply to the discussions on “The impulse strength of fullyimpregnatedpaper dielectrics as used in highvoltage cables”
 Author(s): B. Salvage and J.A.M. Gibbons
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 419 –420
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0095
 Type: Article
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p.
419
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An experimental study of surges and oscillations in windings of coretype transformers
 Author(s): E.L. White
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 421 –431
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0096
 Type: Article
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p.
421
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(11)
Measurements on two experimental coretype transformers, one with two limbs and the other with three limbs, were used to test the validity of theories of transient oscillations in windings with particular reference to Coleman's theoretical treatment of multilimb transformers. Wherever practicable, ‘equivalent singlelimb’ parameters were measured in accordance with this theory. Spectral distributions of oscillation frequencies and variations of mutual leakage inductance between winding elements with separation between elements were adopted as the main criteria in comparisons of experiment and theory.These comparisons showed the superiority of an exponential distribution of mutual inductance over other approximations assumed theories. No critical oscillation frequency as predicted by Rüdenberg was reached or approached, but some support was found for assuming the velocity of travelling waves to be independent of frequency when calculating intersection voltages.Measured responses in terms of spatial distribution, amplitude and waveform showed reasonable agreement with theory. The analytical treatment by Coleman of the transient behaviour of multilimb transformers was verified by numerous tests.
Oscillations in a transformer winding, with particular reference to the response to an applied surge
 Author(s): B.L. Coleman
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 432 –438
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0097
 Type: Article
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p.
432
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Existing singlelimb theory is revised by differentiating between magnetizing and leakage inductance effects. Analysis of m.m.f. and flux in multilimb transformers enables the theory to be extended to a winding on two or three limbs. Solution of these cases is obtained by resolution into equivalent singlelimb windings. Transient response to surges is discussed and expressions are evolved for current and potential distributions.
The surge flashover voltages of airgaps associated with insulators and bushings
 Author(s): G.W. Bowdler and R.C. Hughes
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 439 –444
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0098
 Type: Article
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p.
439
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The paper, which is based on E.R.A. Reports Ref. S/T92 and S/T105, summarizes the results of tests made with surge voltages of 1/50 microsec waveshape on a wide range of insulators and airgaps over a period of 10 years. In determining 50% flashover voltages it was found that the range of voltages over which transition from no flashover to flashover on each of 10 applications of the surge occurred was somewhat variable but averaged about 15% for small and 7% for large insulators and gaps. The extent of this range, in conjunction with the finite number of surges (50–100) generally employed, could account for the variations obtained in the values, corrected to standard atmospheric conditions, of the 50% flashover voltage of a given insulator.In all the systems tested the electric field between the electrodes was highly nonuniform, and a roughly common relationship was found to exist between v, the average value of the positive and negative 50% flashover voltages, and the length of the corresponding flashover path.The timelag curves obtained in tests at higher voltages on systems with small polarity differences approximated to exponential curves decaying with a timeconstant of 2.9 microsec to a voltage V and passing through 1.5 V at 2 microsec.
Discussion on “The design of housingestate distribution systems using a digital computer” before the Sheffield SubCentre, 18th May, 1960
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, page: 444 –444
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0099
 Type: Article
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p.
444
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Some considerations in the application of power rectifiers and convertors
 Author(s): J.P. McBreen
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 445 –454
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0100
 Type: Article
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p.
445
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The paper reviews the more important considerations in the selection and application of power rectifiers and convertors. It begins with a discussion on the suitability and selection of semiconductor rectifiers and mercuryarc rectifiers and convertors for various applications, and proceeds to a discussion on the number of phases to employ and how this question is affected by supply and other considerations. The effect of rectifierfed rollingmill and winder drives on the supply system is discussed. A summary of the characteristics of the transformer connections in more general use is included, together with some notes on their application. Mention is made of parallel operation, and some examples are given of how phase multiplication is achieved. Then follows a discussion on possible faults and their prevention; protection requirements are outlined and the paper concludes with some notes on installation and ventilation. In the main, only British practice is discussed.
Discussion on “Some considerations in the application of power rectifiers and convertors”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 454 –459
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0101
 Type: Article
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p.
454
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The author's reply to the discussions on “Some considerations in the application of power rectifiers and convertors”
 Author(s): J.P. McBreen
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 459 –460
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0102
 Type: Article
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p.
459
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Discussion on “Discrimination between h.r.c. fuses”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 460 –462
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0103
 Type: Article
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p.
460
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Electricity in the manufacture of hydrogen peroxide
 Author(s): B.E.A. Vigers and R.O. Fletcher
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 463 –473
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0104
 Type: Article
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p.
463
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The paper gives a brief history of the development and uses of hydrogen peroxide. The electrochemical process is given in some detail, and types of electrolytic cell are mentioned with reference to the electrical characteristics affecting the design.A modern factory with an 11 MW electrolytic load and the main features of the electrical system peculiar to this type of plant are described. Reference is made to the other services concerned and the use of backpressure turbines and generating plant.The paper concludes with a note on the future of the electrochemical process.
Discussion on “Electricity in the manufacture of hydrogen peroxide” before the Utilization Section, 18th February, 1960
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 473 –475
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0105
 Type: Article
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p.
473
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The authors' reply to the discussion on “Electricity in the manufacture of hydrogen peroxide”
 Author(s): B.E.A. Vigers and R.O. Fletcher
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, page: 475 –475
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0106
 Type: Article
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p.
475
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Further developments of the selfoscillating induction motor
 Author(s): E.R. Laithwaite and G.F. Nix
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 476 –486
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0107
 Type: Article
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p.
476
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The selfoscillating induction motor described in an earlier paper, in which two linear motors placed backtoback are capable of producing a stable amplitude of oscillation of a moving runner without any switching device, cannot be made to operate in small sizes without careful design. Among the possible applications of such a system a traverse mechanism for textile package winders appears to be the most attractive. One of the principal requirements of traverse mechanisms is that the oscillating member should be as small as possible.The paper describes the development of small selfoscillating motors of several types. In some of these the rotors or runners contain iron, while in others they consist of slabs of conducting material. The system is found to operate under transient conditions at all times, and it has not been possible to establish a complete theoretical analysis. Nevertheless, an experimental approach has indicated some of the rules by which a small oscillating motor may be designed. Rotors of the order of only 30 g mass have been made to oscillate successfully, and speeds of over 500 traverses/min over a 14 in length have been achieved with power input of the order of 100 watts.
Discussion on “Submersible pumping plant”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, page: 486 –486
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0108
 Type: Article
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p.
486
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The application of the method of images to machine endwinding fields
 Author(s): C.J. Carpenter
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 487 –500
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0109
 Type: Article
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p.
487
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Although a variety of methods have been used to calculate the fields associated with the endwindings in rotating electrical machines, there appears to have been little attempt to exploit the method of images. This provides a means of solving the field problem by integration with relatively high accuracy. By making use of the vector potential, a comparatively simple calculation is possible of the flux linkages due to complex endwinding arrays. The image principle is extended in the paper to circuits which are partly embedded in the reflecting surface. The effects of various complexities in the boundary conditions, including the presence of the airgap, are considered. The method is well suited to both turbotype alternators, with magnetic and nonmagnetic endrings, and to induction motors. It is illustrated by calculating the endwinding inductance of a 2layer inductionmotor winding.
Discussion on “Electrical supplies to power station auxiliaries”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, p. 500 –503
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0110
 Type: Article
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p.
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Discussion on “The design of electromechanical auxiliaries directly associated with powerproducing reactors” before the Western Supply Group, at Cardiff, 18th January, 1960
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 107, Issue 35, page: 503 –503
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1960.0111
 Type: Article
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p.
503
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