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Volume 102
Issue 3
Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering
Volume 102, Issue 3, June 1955
Volumes & issues:
Volume 102, Issue 3
June 1955
Sealed transformers
 Author(s): E.B. Franklin
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 265 –272
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0063
 Type: Article
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p.
265
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Sealed transformers have certain advantages, and an outline is given of various sealing methods available. The internal pressure relations in a particular type of sealed transformer are obtained, taking into account the effect of gas solution in the oil and the chemical reaction of oxygen with the oil. A review of published experimental work shows how the electric strength of oil varies with gas pressure, and the results are applied to the operating conditions met in sealed transformers. It is shown that special precautions must be taken to avoid large negative pressures. The paper concludes by showing the derivation of the equations for pressures and estimating the effect of tankwall deflection on the pressure.
Discussion on “Sealed transformers” before the Supply Section, 26th January, 1955
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 273 –278
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0064
 Type: Article
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p.
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The author's reply to the discussion on “Sealed transformers”
 Author(s): E.B. Franklin
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, page: 278 –278
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0065
 Type: Article
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p.
278
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The economic selection of cooling towers for generating stations
 Author(s): Geoffrey F. Kennedy and P.H. Margen
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 279 –289
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0066
 Type: Article
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p.
279
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The paper describes the construction of charts showing the economic duty conditions of natural and mechanicaldraught cooling towers for generating stations in the British climate. The charts are drawn in terms of two factors, namely (a) the annual station loadfactor, and (b) the fullload turbine heatrejection per square foot of net exhaust area. Typical seasonal temperature and load cycles are assumed. The calculations indicate that past design practice often led to towers which were unduly large and watertemperature ranges which were unduly small. By correct design, net capitalized savings of the order of £200 000 per 240MW station can be made in some instances. The advent of larger turbine units and the associated higher values of factor (b) will make higher water temperatures economic. With mechanicaldraught towers, the water temperatures specified should generally be lower than with naturaldraught units. A chart is constructed showing the difference in the overall costs of generation of stations fitted with natural and mechanicaldraught towers. This chart suggests that mechanicaldraught towers are economic only at low values of factor (b), such as those obtained on small turbines. Another chart shows the effect of varying climatic conditions on the comparison. Higher air temperatures favour mechanical draught. Circuits for combined river and coolingtower schemes are examined. With these arrangements the cooling towers generally operate mainly during the summer season, and consequently mechanicaldraught towers are often economic. Even with small rivers having widely variable discharges, such combined schemes can be responsible for substantial savings relative to pure coolingtower schemes.
The application of friction/heattransfer correlations to coolingtower design
 Author(s): P.H. Margen
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 290 –300
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0067
 Type: Article
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p.
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The thesis of this paper is that friction and heattransfer properties of coolingtower packings are correlated, i.e. that an improvement in the heattransfer properties can be obtained at the expense of an increase in friction. For any given shell design and packing surface a definite friction factor will then produce the best coolingtower performance. The precise nature of the friction/heattransfer relation depends on the method of changing the shape of the packing, e.g. a progressive change in the alignment of corrugated sheets to produce progressively narrower constrictions in the airflow path. The limited experimental evidence now available, however, suggests that differences between various methods are not pronounced, i.e. that the results for all filmtype packings free from the more obvious design faults are reasonably well represented by a general friction/heattranster correlation. For this correlation a chart is prepared from which the optimum friction factor, the economic packing surface per unit ground area and the corresponding coolingtower performance coefficient can be read off for any values of two design constants, namely the airflow resistance of the tower shell, and the comparative cost of extending the tower ground area and the packing surface. The values of these design constants are discussed for various applications, and it is shown that the optimum friction factor can vary over a range of 0.1–0.6, being lowest for small mechanicaldraught towers situated on expensive ground, and highest for large naturaldraught towers. Methods of determining the economic fan power or chimney height are described and illustrated by worked examples. With the aid of the design chart, economic mechanical and naturaldraught tower designs can be prepared very quickly. For those filmtype packings which do not quite satisfy the general correlation, the design chart may be used in conjunction with two correction factors. For larger departures from the general correlation, such as those to be expected from splashbar packings, individual design charts can be constructed by the methods described.
Discussion on “The economic selection of cooling towers for generating stations” and “The application of friction/heattransfer correlations to coolingtower design” before the Supply Section, 5th January, 1955
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 300 –307
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0068
 Type: Article
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The authors' replies to the discussion on “The economic selection of cooling towers for generating stations” and “The application of friction/heattransfer correlations to coolingtower design” before the Supply Section, 5th January, 1955
 Author(s): G.F. Kennedy and P.H. Margen
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 307 –309
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0069
 Type: Article
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p.
307
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Discussion on “Alternatingcurrentinstrument testing equipment”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 309 –310
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0070
 Type: Article
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p.
309
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Problems of hydroelectric design in mixed thermal–hydroelectric systems
 Author(s): T.G.N. Haldane and P.L. Blackstone
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 311 –322
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0071
 Type: Article
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p.
311
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The paper deals with some of the problems which arise in the planning and development of a system comprising both thermal and hydroelectric plant. In general, when thermal plant predominates it is considered desirable to develop hydroelectric power with the greatest installed capacity the system can absorb in conjunction with the available amount of energy. Practical limitations to lowloadfactor operation are discussed. The effects of the introduction of lowloadfactor hydroelectric plant on system operation and on the overall fuel consumption of the thermal plants are examined. New circumstances which cannot readily be forecast may later make desirable a change in the design load factor of some of the hydroelectric plants, and the paper stresses the advantage of having, where possible, flexibility in the initial design to enable such changes to be made. Where circumstances permit, consideration of the use of pumps, and especially reversible pumpturbines, is recommended as a means of augmenting storage capacity and either increasing the firm annual load factor or permitting increased installed capacity. The basic economics of the pumpedstorage scheme are explained and an example illustrating the flexibility which is possible in planning such an installation is given in the Appendix. The paper discusses the effect on hydroelectric development of the possible ultimate replacement of coal and oil by nuclear fuel in thermal plants, and it is concluded that hydroelectric plant is likely to continue to be advantageous for peakload operation and that there is no justification for any postponement of longterm investment in hydroelectric works on account of the advent of nuclear power. The effect of rising prices is also discussed, and a general survey is given of present practice in the design of hydroelectric machines. Transmission practice and problems are briefly reviewed as an integral part of hydroelectric design. In conclusion it is pointed out that differences of opinion between thermal and hydroelectric engineers may arise because of inadequate mutual understanding of the inherent characteristics of the two types of plant and of the problems of combined operation. The design of hydroelectric projects in a mixed system must be based, not only on the hydrographical and civil engineering data, but on a comprehensive study of all the many factors involved.
Discussion on “Problems of hydroelectric design in mixed thermalhydroelectric systems” before the joint meeting of the Institution and the Institution of Civil Engineers, 6th January, 1955
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 322 –328
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0072
 Type: Article
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p.
322
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Discussion on “Problems of hydroelectric design in mixed thermalhydroelectric systems” before the NorthWestern Supply Group at Manchester, 8th February, 1955
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 329 –330
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0073
 Type: Article
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p.
329
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The authors' reply to the discussion on “Problems of hydroelectric design in mixed thermalhydroelectric systems”
 Author(s): T.G.N. Haldane and P.L. Blackstone
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 330 –331
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0074
 Type: Article
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p.
330
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Discussion on “Service experience of the effect of corrosion on steelcoredaluminium overheadline conductors”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 331 –332
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0075
 Type: Article
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p.
331
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Highvoltage transmission developments in Sweden
 Author(s): Åke Rusck
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 333 –338
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0076
 Type: Article
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p.
333
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Singlephase 50 c/s a.c. traction using a rectifier
 Author(s): A. Mandl
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 339 –348
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0077
 Type: Article
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p.
339
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The paper explains some of the problems arising when a traction motor is fed from an a.c. supply through a singlephase rectifier. The output voltage of the rectifier contains an a.c. component (ripple voltage) of twice the line frequency. It is shown how the ripple voltage depends on the commutating reactance of the rectifier circuit for various load conditions. The effect of the a.c. component (ripple current) in the motor current and the effect of the degree of smoothing necessary to reduce this ripple current on the commutation and commutatorbar voltage of the motor and on the waveform of the line current are examined. Methods whereby these effects may be reduced to a permissible value are investigated, and the influence of such modifications on the commutation and transient stability—shortcircuits and interruptions—are analysed. Oscillographic and other tests carried out on a few traction motors modified in different ways are shown to confirm the theory developed. In the case of a machine with a solid frame, i.e. without laminated magnetic shunt to the compole circuit, certain d.c. commutating conditions must be fulfilled to ensure acceptable commutation when the motor current contains a ripple component.
Distortion of turboalternator rotor windings through thermal stress
 Author(s): D.B. Reay
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 349 –361
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0078
 Type: Article
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p.
349
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The theory of copper shortening in turboalternator rotor windings is extended to take account of recent research on silverfree and silverbearing coppers. The interaction of the turns of a slot stack operating within the elastic strength of the material is analysed and the results are applied to determine the stress distribution in a large winding of coldworked silverbearing copper under various conditions of practical interest. Deformation rates at given temperatures are estimated for such a winding. The basis of evaluation of the stack interface friction coefficients applied in the estimate is indicated.
Discussion on “The propagation of surge voltages through highspeed turboalternations with singleconductor windings”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 361 –363
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0079
 Type: Article
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p.
361
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Discussion on “The transient behaviour of ladder networks of the type representing transformer and machine windings”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, page: 363 –363
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0080
 Type: Article
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p.
363
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Design, performance and application of miniature circuitbreakers
 Author(s): H.W. Wolff and T.G.F. Atherton
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 364 –373
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0081
 Type: Article
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p.
364
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The paper is intended as a critical survey of the technical and economic aspects of miniature circuitbreakers. After some introductory remarks on their place in the field of protective gear, a brief historic outline of their development is given, followed by an analysis of the many requirements to be met, together with a study of the more important design features to be observed concerning contacts, arcextinguishing devices, mechanism, etc. Special attention is devoted to overloads and shortcircuitprotection devices, and the rupturing capacity is reviewed in some detail. The application and economy of these circuitbreakers are discussed on a basis of comparison with other protective gear, and with the practice followed in the United States. In conclusion, some suggestions are made for the future development of miniature circuitbreakers in the belief that they will occupy a place of constantly increasing importance.
Discussion on “Design, performance and application of miniature circuitbreakers” before the Utilization Section, 20th January, 1955
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 373 –376
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0082
 Type: Article
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p.
373
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Discussion on “Design, performance and application of miniature circuitbreakers” before the NorthWestern Utilization Group at Manchester, 10th January, 1955
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 377 –378
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0083
 Type: Article
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p.
377
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Discussion on “Design, performance and application of miniature circuitbreakers” before the NorthEastern Centre at Newcastle upon Tyne, 24th January, 1955
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 378 –379
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0084
 Type: Article
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p.
378
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The authors' reply to the discussions on “Design, performance and application of miniature circuitbreakers”
 Author(s): H.W. Wolff and T.G.F. Atherton
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 379 –380
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0085
 Type: Article
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p.
379
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Discussion on “The logical approach to the problems of space warming by electricity”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 381 –389
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0086
 Type: Article
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p.
381
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The author's reply to the discussion on “The logical approach to the problems of space warming by electricity”
 Author(s): D.H. Parry
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 390 –391
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0087
 Type: Article
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p.
390
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Discussion on “Inherent current, voltage and speed control in dynamoelectric machinery”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 392 –401
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0088
 Type: Article
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p.
392
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The authors' reply to the discussion on “Inherent current, voltage and speed control in dynamoelectric machinery”
 Author(s): J.C. MacFarlane ; J.W. MacFarlane ; W.I. MacFarlane
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 401 –403
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0089
 Type: Article
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p.
401
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Discussion on “The testing and specification of bushings in relation to service conditions”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 404 –410
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0090
 Type: Article
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p.
404
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The authors' reply to the discussion on “The testing and specification of bushings in relation to service conditions”
 Author(s): H. Barker and H. Davies
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 410 –412
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0091
 Type: Article
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p.
410
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Discussion on “Telemetering for system operation”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 412 –414
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0092
 Type: Article
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p.
412
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Discussion on “Magnetic measurement of mechanical hardness”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, page: 414 –414
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0093
 Type: Article
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p.
414
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Discussion on “Resistance heating of mildsteel containers at power frequencies”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 415 –416
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0094
 Type: Article
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p.
415
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Discussion on “The Royal Festival Hall: electrical installation”
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 416 –420
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0095
 Type: Article
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p.
416
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Leakage flux and surface polarity in iron ring stampings
 Author(s): P. Hammond
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 421 –423
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0096
 Type: Article
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p.
421
–423
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The tensor equations of electrical machines
 Author(s): J.W. Lynn
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, p. 423 –428
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0097
 Type: Article
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p.
423
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Alternating voltage, directvoltage regulation drop and power factor of convertor stations operating on a.c. systems of finite shortcircuit capacity
 Author(s): Erich Uhlmann
 Source: Proceedings of the IEE  Part A: Power Engineering, Volume 102, Issue 3, page: 428 –428
 DOI: 10.1049/pia.1955.0098
 Type: Article
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p.
428
(1)
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