Investigation on structural colours in wing scales of butterfly Papilio peranthus Fabricius

Investigation on structural colours in wing scales of butterfly Papilio peranthus Fabricius

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The microstructure and geometrical dimensions of the scales on a butterfly Papilio peranthus Fabricius wing are obtained using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Two kinds of scales are found in a butterfly wing and the structural colour mainly comes from the cover scale. Different structural models of cover scale that are related to ridge and concavity are constructed and their corresponding optical properties are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain  method. It is concluded that the structural colour on the cover scale mainly comes from the sculpted multilayer structure and the ridge on the scale has few effects on the structural colour. When the curvature of the sculpted multilayer structure decreases, the dominant wavelength of colour will shift to a longer wavelength and move slower and slower. The two-dimensional planar multilayer model can be used to calculate the structural colour when the curvature exceeds a certain value.


    1. 1)
      • Physics of structural colors
    2. 2)
      • Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei
    3. 3)
      • Light trapping structures in wing scales of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana
    4. 4)
      • Optical measurement and fabrication from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition
    5. 5)
      • Composite organic-inorganic butterfly scales: production of photonic structures with atomic layer deposition
    6. 6)
      • Flexible, angle-independent, structural color reflectors inspired by morpho butterfly wings
    7. 7)
      • A review of the diversity and evolution of photonic structures in butterflies, incorporating the work of John Huxley (The Natural History Museum, London from 1961 to 1990)
    8. 8)
      • Optical classification of microstructure in butterfly wing-scales
    9. 9)
      • Effects of a butterfly scale microstructure on the iridescent color observed at different angles
    10. 10)
      • Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly
    11. 11)
      • Photonic structure in the wings of Papilio bianor
    12. 12)
      • Structural colouration and optical effects in the wings of Papilio peranthus
    13. 13)
      • Mysterious coloring: structural origin of color mixing for two breeds of Papilio butterflies
    14. 14)
      • Optical properties of the scales of morpho rhetenor butterflies: theoretical and experimental investigation of the back-scattering of light in the visible spectrum
    15. 15)
      • Detailed electromagnetic simulation for the structural color of butterfly wings
    16. 16)
      • Jiawen, L., Xi, L., Fei, Y., Yuhang, C., Wenhao, H.: `Mechanism and analysis of structural color in two typical butterfly scales', 2010 5th IEEE Int. Conf. on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS), 2010, January 2010
    17. 17)
      • Vukusic, P., Sambles, J.R., Lawrence, C.R., Wootton, R.J.: `Quantified interference and diffraction in single morpho butterfly scales', Proc. R. Soc. London Series B Biol. Sci., 1999, 266, p. 1403–1411, 1427
    18. 18)
      • Controlled replication of butterfly wings for achieving tunable photonic properties
    19. 19)
      • Vukusic, P., Sambles, J.R., Lawrence, C.R.: `Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales', Proc. R. Soc. London Series B Biol. Sci., 2004, 271, p. S237–S239, Supplement 4
    20. 20)
      • Morpho butterflies wings color modeled with lamellar grating theory

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