Efficient field emission and optical properties of In-doped cadmium sulphide nanopens and nanopencils

Efficient field emission and optical properties of In-doped cadmium sulphide nanopens and nanopencils

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Quasi-aligned indium (In)-doped cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanostructures synthesised by the gold (Au) metal-catalysed vapour–liquid–solid growth method on silicon (Si) substrates under different experiment conditions are reported. X-ray diffraction analysis on the as-prepared samples indicated the nanostructures as ‘wurtzite-type’ CdS crystal structures. Characterisation of the morphology and structure revealed the growth of two different geometries; nanopens and nanopencils with tip diameters ranging from 50–100 nm which can be varied through experimental conditions. Electron field emission measurements on the indium-doped quasi-aligned nanopencils and nanopens exhibit low turn-on electric fields of 5.5 and 4.5 V/µm (at the current density of 0.01 mA/cm2) for nanopens and nanopencils, respectively. This low turn-on field can be attributed to the sharp tip and higher indium doping level in the nanostrcutures. In addition, the indium doping into the CdS lattice was analysed by low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy (LT-PL). Temperature-dependent PL measurements showed that the PL spectra have three emission peaks at 9 K, which can be attributed to band edge free exciton emission and shallow donor levels donor–acceptor pair exciton emission because of doping. The result presents the promising application of these materials in the field of optoelectronics as efficient electron field emitters.

Inspec keywords: doping profiles; nanostructured materials; semiconductor growth; wide band gap semiconductors; nanofabrication; II-VI semiconductors; X-ray diffraction; electron field emission; indium; impurity states; excitons; photoluminescence; cadmium compounds

Other keywords: optical properties; low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy; sharp tip; size 50 nm to 100 nm; X-ray diffraction analysis; shallow donor levels; turn-on electric fields; donor-acceptor pair exciton emission; silicon substrates; quasialigned indium-doped cadmium sulphide nanostructures; band edge free exciton emission; indium-doped quasialigned nanopencils; CdS lattice; temperature 9 K; XRD; CdS:In; tip diameters; wurtzite-type CdS crystal structures; indium doping level; Si; efficient electron field emitters; efficient field emission properties; optoelectronics; PL spectra; In-doped cadmium sulphide nanopens; emission peaks; electron field emission measurements; temperature-dependent PL measurements; gold metal-catalysed vapour-liquid-solid growth method

Subjects: Structure of solid clusters, nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanostructured materials; Methods of nanofabrication and processing; Nanometre-scale semiconductor fabrication technology; Impurity concentration, distribution, and gradients; Excitons and related phenomena; Low-dimensional structures: growth, structure and nonelectronic properties; Field emission and field ionization; Optical properties of II-VI and III-V semiconductors (thin films/low-dimensional structures); Photoluminescence in II-VI and III-V semiconductors; II-VI and III-V semiconductors; Impurity and defect levels in II-VI and III-V semiconductors


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