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Characterisation of wind field with high resolution in time and space by the use of electromagnetic and acoustic waves

Characterisation of wind field with high resolution in time and space by the use of electromagnetic and acoustic waves

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The authors present a bistatic radio–acoustic system where a Bragg grid produced by a spherical pressure wave enhances the forward scattering capability by some 40 dB when matched to the EM phase front. The system is used to measure 3-D wind, turbulence and vortex parameters as wind phenomena alter the scattering characteristics of the acoustic Bragg grid. The criterion for Bragg scattering is only valid over a limited height interval in this system. This confines the scattering volume to the limits of the radio beam and the acoustic beam in the horizontal direction and the Bragg-criteria limitations in the vertical direction. This scattering volume can be shifted vertically by tuning the acoustic frequency to give spatial resolution. Illuminating the acoustic Bragg grid with a CW EM signal gives a continuously received signal from a small scattering volume at a given height. It is possible to continuously measure the real-time cross-path wind component and at the same time perform coherent integration over longer time intervals in investigating turbulence phenomena. Experimental verification supports the theoretical models and underlines the system's capacity to measure wind phenomena, vortex structures and turbulence parameters.

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