Simplified estimation of ray-path mirroring height for HF radiowaves reflected from the ionospheric F-region

Simplified estimation of ray-path mirroring height for HF radiowaves reflected from the ionospheric F-region

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From Milsom's equations, which describe the geometry of ray-path hops reflected from the ionospheric F-layer, algorithms for the simplified estimation of mirror-reflection height are developed. These allow for hop length and the effects of variations in underlying ionisation (via the ratio of the F2- and E-layer critical frequencies) and F2-layer peak height (via the M(3000)F2-factor). Separate algorithms are presented which are applicable to a range of signal frequencies about the FOT and to propagation at the MUF. The accuracies and complexities of the algorithms are compared with those inherent in the use of a procedure based on an equation developed by Shimazaki.


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