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Load-imposed instability and performance degradation in a regulated converter

Load-imposed instability and performance degradation in a regulated converter

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The stability and performance of a regulated converter is analysed based on its closed-loop output impedance. System theory is used to obtain a set of transfer functions that define the internal stability of an interconnected system consisting of source and load converters. The internal stability is described in terms of the ratio of the output impedance of the source converter and the input impedance of the load converter known as the minor-loop gain. Thus, the closed-loop output impedance of a source converter can be used to define safe operating areas that avoid instabilities in the load impedance. It is shown that the margins associated with the minor-loop gain (i.e. the gain and phase margins) do not generally match the margins of the output-voltage loop gain. The relationship is especially weak at frequencies close to and beyond the crossover frequency of the loop gain. This means that the margins given to the minor-loop gain should be gradually increased as the voltage-loop-gain crossover frequency is approached so as to avoid performance degradation (i.e. changes in margins and crossover frequency) in the supply converter. Experimental evidence is provided based on a buck converter under voltage- and peak-current-mode control.

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