Your browser does not support JavaScript!

access icon free Application communication reliability of wireless sensor networks

This paper considers application communication reliability (ACR) of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) supporting K-coverage in the presence of shadowing for a specific monitored area. Application communication relates to the acquisition of sensed data from a specific area and network connectivity that concerns the reliable delivery of the observed data from sensor nodes to the sink node. The analytical evaluation of ACR involves two steps: first identifying all the K-coverage sets, and then evaluating the communication reliability of delivering the observed data from sensor nodes within the identified K-coverage sets to the sink node. Two single-path routing algorithms, shortest-path distance algorithm and shortest-path hop algorithm, are considered for evaluating the communication reliability during the second step. Their performances in terms of ACR and energy consumptions are compared through an empirical analysis of several examples. Results show that WSNs using the shortest-path distance algorithm are more reliable than those using the shortest-path hop algorithm in most cases, but consume more energy for delivering the sensed data to the sink node. Different scenarios are also considered to evaluate the impact of node density, channel condition and different monitored areas on ACR of WSNs.


    1. 1)
      • 7. Harrop, P., Das, R.: ‘Wireless sensor networks 2009–2019: the new market for ubiquitous sensor networks (USN)’ (IDTechEx Inc., 2009), Available at
    2. 2)
      • 24. Gerharz, M., Waal, C.D., Frank, M., Martini, P.: ‘Link stability in mobile wireless ad hoc networks’. Proc. 27th Annual IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks (LCN'02), 2002, pp. 3039.
    3. 3)
    4. 4)
      • 2. Stankovic, J.A.: ‘Research challenges for wireless sensor networks’, ACM SIGBED Rev. Spec. Issue Embedded Sens. Netw. Wirel. Comput., 2004, 1, (2), pp. 912.
    5. 5)
      • 28. Boukerche, A.: ‘Algorithms and protocols for wireless sensor networks’ (Wiley-IEEE Press, New Jersey, 2008).
    6. 6)
      • 27. Woo, A., Tong, T., Culler, D.: ‘Taming the underlying challenges of reliable multihop routing in sensor networks’. Proc. First Int. Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Los Angeles, California, USA, 05–07 November 2003.
    7. 7)
      • 4. Pereira, P.R., Grilo, A., Rocha, F., et al: ‘End-to-end reliability in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges’. Euro FGI Workshop on IP QoS and Traffic Control, 2007.
    8. 8)
      • 20. Bulusu, N., Heidemann, J., Estrin, D.: ‘GPS-less low cost outdoor localization for very small devices’. Technical Report 00-729, Computer Science Department, University of Southern California, April 2000.
    9. 9)
      • 25. Hekmat, R., Van Mieghem, P.: ‘Degree distribution and hopcount in wireless ad-hoc networks’. The 11th IEEE Int. Conf. Networks (ICON2003), 2003, pp. 603609.
    10. 10)
      • 6. Chen, P.W.-C.: ‘Wireless sensor network metrics for real-time systems’. EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, 2009.
    11. 11)
      • 29. Zonouz, A.E., Tadayon, N., Aïssa, S., Xing, L.: ‘Design and evaluation of small-world wireless ad-hoc networks under Rayleigh fading’. IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), December 2012, pp. 670675.
    12. 12)
    13. 13)
      • 16. Ehsani Zonouz, A., Xing, L., Vokkarane, V.M., Sun, Y.: ‘Application communication reliability of wireless sensor networks supporting K-coverage’. Proc. 2013 IEEE Int. Conf. Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (The Seventh Int. Workshop on Wireless Sensor, Actuator and Robot Networks), Cambridge, MA, May 2013, pp. 430435.
    14. 14)
      • 18. Shrestha, A., Xing, L., Liu, H.: ‘Modeling and evaluating the reliability of wireless sensor networks’. Proc. Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symp., FL, USA, January 2007, pp. 186191.
    15. 15)
      • 14. Fan, G., Jin, S.: ‘Coverage problem in wireless sensor network: a survey’, J. Netw., 2010, 5, (9), pp. 10331040.
    16. 16)
      • 5. Meguerdichian, S., Koushanfar, F., Potkonjak, M., Srivastava, M.B.: ‘Coverage problems in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks’. Proc. INFOCOM, Ankorange, Alaska, 2001.
    17. 17)
      • 17. Huang, C.F., Tseng, Y.C.: ‘The coverage problem in a wireless sensor network’. Proc. ACM Int. Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA), 2003, pp. 115121.
    18. 18)
      • 19. Shrestha, A., Xing, L.: ‘Quantifying application communication reliability of wireless sensor networks’, Int. J. Performability Eng., 2008, 4, p. 43.
    19. 19)
      • 22. Dugan, J.B., Doyle, S.A.: ‘New results in fault-tree analysis’. Tutorial Notes of Annual Reliability & Maintainability Symp., January 1996.
    20. 20)
      • 10. So, A., Ye, Y.: ‘On solving coverage problems in a wireless sensor network using voronoi diagrams’. Proc. Workshop on Internet and Network Economics (WINE'05), Hong Kong, December 2005.
    21. 21)
      • 21. Maple Software, [Online], Available at
    22. 22)
    23. 23)
    24. 24)
    25. 25)
      • 15. Ehsani Zonouz, A., Xing, L., Vokkarane, V.M., Sun, Y.: ‘K-coverage reliability evaluation for wireless sensor networks’. The 18th ISSAT Int. Conf. Reliability and Quality, MA, July 2012.
    26. 26)
      • 13. Podurl, S., Sukhatme, G.S.: ‘Constrained coverage for mobile sensor networks’. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics and Automation, 2004, pp. 165172.
    27. 27)
      • 30. Heinzelman, W.R., Chandrahasan, A., Balakrishnan, H.: ‘Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks’. IEEE Proc. 33rd Hawaii Int. Conf. System Sciences, 2000, pp. 110.
    28. 28)
    29. 29)
      • 12. Zhang, H., Hou, J.C.: ‘Maintaining sensing coverage and connectivity in large sensor networks’, Ad Hoc Sens. Wirel. Netw., 2005, 1, (1), pp. 89124.
    30. 30)

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address