Computation reduction for intra 4×4 mode decision with SATD criterion in H.264/AVC

Computation reduction for intra 4×4 mode decision with SATD criterion in H.264/AVC

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Signal Processing — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

In H.264 advanced video coding standard, the intra prediction made by referring to the surrounding coded pixels plays an important role in achieving the compression efficiency. To find the best prediction mode, the H.264 reference software JM 6.1d suggests two criteria, the sum of absolute differences (SAD) and the sum of absolute transformed differences (SATD). The SATD criterion with extra Hadamard transform achieves better coding performance, but needs more computation than the SAD criterion. A fast algorithm is developed to reduce the computation of the SATD, by using the property of linear transform and the fixed-spatial relationship of predicted pixels in each intra mode. With the fast SATD computation, about 50% computation of the original SATD algorithm can be reduced. To further reduce the SATD computation, a two-stage simplified SATD method is proposed, which first uses the SAD criterion to eliminate some unwanted modes and then performs the fast SATD computation to select the best mode. Experimental results show that the proposed two-stage simplified SATD method can save about 70% of computation costs with negligible PSNR loss for H.264 intra prediction.


    1. 1)
      • , : `Advanced video coding', Final Committee Draft, Document JVTG050, March 2003, ITU-T Rec. H.264/ISO/IEC 11496-10.
    2. 2)
      • T. Wiegand , G.J. Sullivan , G. Bjontegaard , A. Luthra . Overview of the H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. , 7 , 560 - 576
    3. 3)
      • F. Pan , X. Lin , S. Rahardja , K.P. Lim , Z.G. Li , D. Wu , S. Wu . Fast mode decision algorithm for intraprediction in H.264/AVC video coding. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. , 7 , 813 - 822
    4. 4)
      • Pan, F., Rahardja, L.S., Lim, K.P., Wu, L.D., Wu, W.S., Zhu, C., Ye, W., Liang, Z.: `Fast intra mode decision algorithm for H.264-AVC video coding', Proc. Int. Conf. on Image Processing, 2004, 2, p. 781–784.
    5. 5)
      • Fu, F., Lin, X., Xu, L.: `Fast intra prediction algorithm in H.264-AVC', Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Signal Processing, 2004, 2, p. 1191–1194.
    6. 6)
      • J.-H. Kim , J. Jeong . Fast intra-mode decision in H.264 video coding using simple directional masks. Proc. VCIP2005 SPIE , 1071 - 1079
    7. 7)
      • Wei, Y.-C., Yang, J.-F.: `Transformed-domain intra mode decision in H.264/AVC encoder', Proc. IEEE Region 10 Conf. (TENCON 2006), November 2006.
    8. 8)
      • Wang, J.-F., Wang, J.-C., Chen, J.-T., Tsai, A.-C., Paul, A.: `A novel fast algorithm for intra mode decision in H.264/AVC encoders', Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., May 2006, p. 3498–3501.
    9. 9)
      • ITU-Telecommun Standardization Sector.: ‘H.26L test model long term number 1 (TML-2) Draft 0’. Doc. Q15-I-57d0, 15 November, 1999.
    10. 10)
      • M. Cohn , A. Lempel . On fast M-sequences transforms,. IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory , 135 - 137
    11. 11)
      • C.P. Fan , J.F. Yang . Fast center weighted hadamard transform algorithms. IEEE Trans. Circuit Syst., Part II Analog Digit. Signal Process. , 3 , 429 - 432
    12. 12)
      • C.P. Fan , J.F. Yang . Fixed-pipeline two dimensional hadamard transform algorithms. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. , 6 , 1669 - 1674
    13. 13)
      • Bjontegaard, G.: `Calculation of average PSNR differences between RD-curves', 13thVCEG-M33 Meeting, April 1997, Austin, TX.
    14. 14)
      • Joint Video Team (JVT) Reference Software version 6.1d.
    15. 15)
      • Richardson, I.E.G.: `H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10: transform & quantization', March 2003, H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10 White Paper.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address