© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
The classic twostep approach for time difference of arrival (TDOA) geolocation is suboptimal since the TDOA measurements have not followed the constraint that all measurements should be consistent for a geolocation of a single emitter. In this study, the direct TDOA geolocation approach is proposed for frequencyhopping (FH) emitters. It makes use of the sparsity of the FH signals in frequency domain, and constructs a cross correlation function (CCF) matrix in frequency domain, then the location estimate is obtained by searching the maximum eigenvalue of the CCF matrix in a two dimensional grid. The Cramer–Rao lower bound has been derived. The resolution for a single FH signal geolocation is also analysed. Further, an extension of the new method for multiple FH emitters direct TDOA geolocation has been presented. The performance comparison between the direct approach and the conventional twostep method has been made by simulations. The results demonstrated that the proposed method outperforms the conventional twostep method. The simulations also demonstrated the effectiveness of the new method in locating multiple FH emitters.
References


1)

1. Liu, X.Q., Sidiropoulos, N.D., Swami, A.: ‘Blind highresolution localization and tracking of multiple frequency hopped signals’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 2002, 50, (4), pp. 889–901.

2)

2. Liu, N., Xu, Z., Sadler, B.M.: ‘Ziv–Zakai timedelay estimation bounds for frequencyhopping waveforms under frequencyselective fading’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 2010, 58, (12), pp. 6400–6406.

3)

3. Chan, Y.T., Ho, K.C.: ‘A simple and efficient estimator for hyperbolic location’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 1994, 42, (8), pp. 1905–1915.

4)

4. Yang, L., Ho, K.C.: ‘An approximately efficient TDOA localization algorithm in closedform for locating multiple disjoint sources with erroneous sensor positions’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 2009, 57, (12), pp. 4598–4615.

5)

5. Cheung, K.W., So, H.C., Ma, W.K., et al: ‘A constrained least squares approach to mobile positioning: algorithms and optimality’, EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Process., 2006, 2006, pp. 1–23.

6)

6. Torrieri, D.J.: ‘Statistical theory of passive location system’, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., 1984, 20, (2), pp. 183–197.

7)

7. Kim, Y.H., Kim, D.G., Kim, H.N.: ‘Twostep estimator for movingemitter geolocation using time difference of arrival/frequencydifference of arrival measurements’, IET Radar Sonar Navig., 2015, 9, (7), pp. 881–887.

8)

8. Wen, F., Wan, Q.: ‘Maximum likelihood and signalselective TDOA estimation for noncircular signals’, J. Commun. Netw., 2013, 15, (3), pp. 245–251.

9)

9. Wen, F., Wan, Q., Luo, L.Y.: ‘Timedifferenceofarrival estimation for noncircular signals using information theory’, Int. J. Electron. Commun., 2013, 67, (3), pp. 242–245.

10)

10. Wei, H.W., Peng, R., Wan, Q., et al: ‘Multidimensional scaling analysis for passive moving target localization with TDOA and FDOA measurements’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 2010, 58, (3), pp. 1677–1688.

11)

11. Dogancay, K.: ‘Bearingsonly target localization using total least squares’, Signal Process., 2005, 85, pp. 1695–1710.

12)

12. Haworth, D.P., Smith, N.G., Bardeli, R.: ‘Interference localization for EUTELSAT satellitesthe first European transmitter location system’, Int. J. Satell. Commun., 1997, 15, (4), pp. 55–183.

13)

13. Qiao, D.P.: ‘An iteratively reweighted least square algorithm for RSSbased sensor network localization’. IEEE Int. Conf. Mechatronics and Automation, 2011, pp. 1085–1092.

14)

14. Stein, S.: ‘Algorithms for ambiguity function processing’, IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process., 1981, 29, (3), pp. 588–599.

15)

15. Knapp, C.H., Carter, G.C.: ‘The generalized correlation method for estimation of time delay’, IEEE Trans. ASSP, 1976, 24, (4), pp. 320–327.

16)

16. Stein, S.: ‘Differential delay/Doppler ML estimation with unknown signals’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 1993, 41, (8), pp. 2717–2719.

17)

17. Wang, J., Xu, Y., Xu, P.: ‘A linear method for TDOA estimation of frequencyhopping signal’. Int. Conf. on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, 2012, pp. 1–4.

18)

18. Goetz, A., Rose, R., Zorn, S., et al: ‘A wideband cross correlation technique for high precision time delay estimation of frequency hopping GSM signals’. 41st European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 2011, pp. 33–36.

19)

19. Weiss, A.: ‘Direct position determination of narrowband radio frequency transmitters’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 2004, 11, (5), pp. 513–516.

20)

20. Amar, A., Weiss, A.: ‘Direct position determination of multiple radio signals’. ICASSP, 2004, pp. 81–84.

21)

21. Amar, A., Weiss, A.: ‘Localization of narrowband radio emitters based on doppler frequency shifts’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 2008, 56, (11), pp. 5500–5508.

22)

22. Weiss, A.: ‘Direct geolocation of wideband emitters based on delay and doppler’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 2011, 59, (6), pp. 2513–2521.

23)

23. Tirer, T., Weiss, A.: ‘High resolution direct position determination of radio frequency sources’, IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 2016, 23, (2), pp. 192–196.

24)

24. Vankaya, N., Kay, S., Ding, Q.: ‘TDOA based direct positioning maximum likelihood estimator and the CramerRao bound’, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., 2014, 50, (3), pp. 1616–1635.

25)

25. Vankaya, N., Kay, S.: ‘Asymptotically optimal localization of an emitter of low probability of intercept signals using distributed sensors’, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., 2012, 48, (1), pp. 737–748.

26)

26. Mohammad, P., Fowler, M.L.: ‘Distributed computation for direct position determination emitter location’, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., 2012, 50, (4), pp. 2878–2889.

27)

27. Ouyang, X.X., Wan, Q., Xiong, J.Y., et al: ‘CramerRao bound of TDOA estimation for frequencyhopping signals in fading channels’, IEEE ChinaSIP, Chengdu, 2015, pp. 1032–1036.
http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1049/ietspr.2016.0299
Related content
content/journals/10.1049/ietspr.2016.0299
pub_keyword,iet_inspecKeyword,pub_concept
6
6