Combining goal model with reviews for supporting the evolution of apps

Combining goal model with reviews for supporting the evolution of apps

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Software — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

To support the iterative development process of Apps, the goal model is not only established to describe the requirements at the early stage but also used for identifying the updating strategy in every iteration. In this process, reviews from users provide valuable information for developers to analyse the model with users sentiments. In this study, the authors combine the goal model with reviews for supporting the evolution of Apps. First, the authors introduce the reviews into the goal model as a new factor by comparing keywords. Second, the users sentiments in reviews are mined, and two kinds of information are gained by analysing the model to help developers make decisions on which goals to be improved in next version: one kind of information is about users sentiments on the goals to evaluate whether users like them; another kind is the impact of updating one goal to others. To validate the proposed approach, they conducted experiments and a survey based on the Apps in Google Play. The results show that the proposed approach can establish relationships between goals and reviews reasonably and further provide useful information for optimising the evolution strategy of the App.


    1. 1)
      • 1. Horkoff, J., Aydemir, F.B., Cardoso, E., et al: ‘Goal-oriented requirements engineering: A systematic literature map’. Requirements Engineering Conf. IEEE, Beijing, China, September 2016, pp. 106115.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Haidar, H., Kolp, M., Wautelet, Y.: ‘Goal-oriented requirement engineering for agile software product lines: an overview’. Louvain School of Management Research Institute Working Paper Series, Louvain, Belgium, February 2017, pp. 136.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Sayeb, Y., Hamdoun, I., Saidani, M., et al: ‘A goal-oriented approach to the urbanization of the academic information system of UMA’. Int. Symp. Isko-Maghreb IEEE, Marrakech, Morocco, November 2013, pp. 17.
    4. 4)
      • 4. Dalpiaz, F., Borgida, A., Horkoff, J., et al: ‘Runtime goal models’. 2013 IEEE Seventh Int. Conf. Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS), Paris, France, May 2013, pp. 111.
    5. 5)
      • 5. Tenso, T., Norta, A.H., Rootsi, H., et al: ‘Enhancing requirements engineering in Agile methodologies by agent-oriented goal models: two empirical case studies’. IEEE Requirements Engineering Conf. Workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2017, pp. 268275.
    6. 6)
      • 6. Martin, W., Sarro, F., Jia, Y., et al: ‘A survey of app store analysis for software engineering’, IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., 2017, 43, (9), pp. 817847.
    7. 7)
      • 7. McIlroy, S., Ali, N., Hassan, A.E.: ‘Fresh apps: an empirical study of frequently-updated mobile apps in the google play store’, Empir. Softw. Eng., 2015, 21, pp. 13461370.
    8. 8)
      • 8. Cao, D., Nie, L., He, X., et al: ‘Version-sensitive mobile app recommendation’, Inf. Sci., 2017, 381, pp. 161175.
    9. 9)
      • 9. Gu, X., Kim, S.: ‘What parts of your apps are loved by users?’. 30th IEEE/ACM Int. Conf. on Automatic Software Engineering, Lincoln, NE, USA, November 2015, pp. 760770.
    10. 10)
      • 10. Khalid, H., Shihab, E., Nagappan, M., et al: ‘What Do Mobile app users complain about? A study on free iOS apps’, IEEE Softw., 2014, 32, (3), pp. 16.
    11. 11)
      • 11. Panichella, S., Sorbo, A.D., Guzman, E., et al: ‘How can i improve my app? Classifying user reviews for software maintenance and evolution’. IEEE Int. Conf. on Software Maintenance and Evolution, Bremen, Germany, September 2015, pp. 281290.
    12. 12)
      • 12. Finkelstein, A., Harman, M., Jia, J., et al: ‘App store analysis: Mining app stores for relationships between customer, business and technical characteristics’, Reseach Note RN/14/10, UCL Department of Computer Science, 2014.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Yang, H., Liang, P.: ‘Identification and classification of requirements from app user reviews’. Int. Conf. on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, July 2015, pp. 16.
    14. 14)
      • 14. Bakar, N.H., Kasirun, Z.M., Salleh, N., et al: ‘Extracting features from online software reviews to aid requirements reuse’, Appl. Soft Comput., 2016, 49, pp. 12971315.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Guzman, E., Maalej, W.: ‘How Do users like this feature? A fine grained sentiment analysis of app reviews’. Requirements Engineering Conf., Karlskrona, Sweden, August 2014, pp. 153162.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Villarroel, L., Bavota, G., Russo, B., et al: ‘Release planning of mobile apps based on user reviews’. Int. Conf. on Software Engineering, Austin, TX, USA, May 2016, pp. 1424.
    17. 17)
      • 17. Chen, N., Lin, J., Hoi, S.C.H., et al: ‘AR-miner: mining informative reviews for developers from mobile app marketplace’. Int. Conf. on Software Engineering ACM, Hyderabad, India, May 2014, pp. 767778.
    18. 18)
      • 18. Lin, J., Yu, H., Shen, Z., et al: ‘Using goal net to model user stories in agile software development’. Int. Conf. on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, NETWORKING and Parallel/distributed Computing, Las Vegas, NV, USA, June 2014, pp. 16.
    19. 19)
      • 19. van Lamsweerde, A., Willemet, L.: ‘Inferring declarative requirements specifications from operational scenarios’, IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., 1998, 24, (12), pp. 10891114.
    20. 20)
      • 20. Gralha, C.: ‘Evaluation of requirements models’. IEEE Requirements Engineering Conf., Beijing, China, September 2016, pp. 432437.
    21. 21)
      • 21. Massacci, F., Mylopoulos, J., Zannone, N.: ‘Computer-aided support for secure Tropos’ (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, USA, 2007), vol. 14, pp. 341364.
    22. 22)
      • 22. Paja, E., Chopra, A.K., Giorgini, P.: ‘Trust-based specification of sociotechnical systems’, Data Knowl. Eng., 2013, 87, (4), pp. 339353.
    23. 23)
      • 23. Asnar, Y., Massacci, F.: ‘A method for security governance, risk, and compliance (GRC): A goal-process approach’, in Aldini, A., Gorrieri, R.: (Eds.) ‘Foundations of security analysis and design VI’ (Springer, Berlin & Heidelberg, Germany, 2011), pp. 152184.
    24. 24)
      • 24. Mendonça, D.F., Rodrigues, G.N., Ali, R., et al: ‘GODA: A goal-oriented requirements engineering framework for runtime dependability analysis’, Inf. Softw. Technol., 2016, 80, pp. 245264.
    25. 25)
      • 25. Park, E., Chung, L., Hong, J.E., et al: ‘Problem-aware traceability in goal-oriented requirements engineering’. Int. Conf. on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, San Francisco, CA, USA, July 2016, pp. 16.
    26. 26)
      • 26. Degiovanni, R., Ricci, N., Alrajeh, D., et al: ‘Goal-conflict detection based on temporal satisfiability checking’. IEEE Int. Conf. on Automated Software Engineering, Florianopolis, Brazil, August 2016, pp. 507518.
    27. 27)
      • 27. Hayashi, S., Inoue, W., Kaiya, H., et al: ‘Annotating goals with concerns in goal-oriented requirements engineering’. Int. Conf. on Software Technologies, Colmar, France, July 2016, pp. 269286.
    28. 28)
      • 28. Mohammadi, N.G., Alebrahim, A., Weyer, T., et al: ‘A framework for combining problem frames and goal models to support context analysis during requirements engineering’. Int. Conf. Cross Domain Availability, Reliability, Security, Regensburg, Germany, May 2013, pp. 272288.
    29. 29)
      • 29. Asadi, M., Gröner, G., Mohabbati, B., et al: ‘Goal-oriented modeling and verification of feature-oriented product lines’, Softw. Syst. Model., 2016, 15, (1), pp. 257279.
    30. 30)
      • 30. Maalej, W., Nabil, H.: ‘Bug report, feature request, or simply praise? On automatically classifying app reviews’. IEEE Requirements Engineering Conf., Ottawa, ON, Canada, August 2015, pp. 116125.
    31. 31)
      • 31. Guzman, E., El-Haliby, M., Bruegge, B.: ‘Ensemble methods for app review classification: an Approach for software evolution (N)’. IEEE Int. Conf. on Automated Software Engineering, Lincoln, NE, USA, November 2015, pp. 771776.
    32. 32)
      • 32. Shah, F.A., Sabanin, Y., Pfahl, D.: ‘Feature-based evaluation of competing apps’. Proc. Int. Workshop on App Market Analytics, 2016, pp. 1521.
    33. 33)
      • 33. Jeungmin, O., Daehoon, K., Uichin, L., et al: ‘Facilitating developer-user interactions with mobile app review digests’. CHI Extended Abstracts, Paris, France, May 2013, pp. 18091814.
    34. 34)
      • 34. Fu, B., Lin, J., Li, L., et al: ‘Why people hate your app: making sense of user feedback in a mobile app store’. ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining ACM., Chicago, IL, USA, August 2013, pp. 12761284.
    35. 35)
      • 35. Vu, P.M., Nguyen, T.T., Pham, H.V., et al: ‘Mining user opinions in Mobile app reviews: a keyword-based approach’. IEEE/ACM Int. Conf. on Automated Software Engineering, Lincoln, NE, USA, November 2015, pp. 749759.
    36. 36)
      • 36. Vu, P.M., Pham, H.V., Nguyen, T.T., et al: ‘Phrase-based extraction of user opinions in mobile app reviews’. IEEE/ACM Int. Conf., Singapore, September 2016, pp. 726731.
    37. 37)
      • 37. Li, X., Wang, Y., Zhang, A., et al: ‘Filtering out the noise in short text topic modeling’, Inf. Sci., 2018, 456, pp. 8396.
    38. 38)
      • 38. Li, X., Li, C., Chi, J., et al: ‘Short text topic modeling by exploring original documents’, Knowl. Inf. Syst., 2018, 56, (2), pp. 443462.
    39. 39)
      • 39. Giorgini, P., Mylopoulos, J., Sebastiani, R.: ‘Goal-oriented requirements analysis and reasoning in the tropos methodology’, Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell., 2005, 18, (2), pp. 159171.
    40. 40)
      • 40. Chung, L., Leite, J.C.P.: ‘On non-functional requirements in software engineering’, in Borgida, A.T., Chaudhri, V.K., Giorgini, P., et al: (Eds.), ‘Conceptual modeling: Foundations and applications: Essays in honour of John Mylopoulos’ (Springer, Berlin & Heidelberg, Germany, 2009), pp. 363379.
    41. 41)
      • 41. Lamsweerde, A.V., Dardenne, A., Delcourt, B., et al: ‘The KAOS Project: Knowledge acquisition in automated specifications of software’, Stanford University AAAI, 1991.
    42. 42)
      • 42. Loper, E., Bird, S.: ‘NLTK: the Natural Language Toolkit’, 2002, pp. 6370.
    43. 43)
      • 43. Giorgini, P., Mylopoulos, J., Nicchiarelli, E., et al: ‘Formal reasoning techniques for goal models’, in Spaccapietra, S., March, S., Aberer, K. (Eds.): ‘Journal on data semantics I’ (Springer, Berlin & Heidelberg, Germany, 2003), vol. 1, pp. 120.
    44. 44)
      • 44. Liu, Y., Liu, L., Liu, H., et al: ‘Mining domain knowledge from app descriptions’, J. Syst. Softw., 2017, 133, pp. 126144.
    45. 45)
      • 45. Hariri, N., Castroherrera, C., Mirakhorli, M., et al: ‘Supporting domain analysis through mining and recommending features from online product listings’, IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., 2013, 39, (12), pp. 17361752.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address