Random phase code for automotive MIMO radars using combined frequency shift keying-linear FMCW waveform

Random phase code for automotive MIMO radars using combined frequency shift keying-linear FMCW waveform

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

Automotive radar is a key component for self-driving cars and advanced driver assistant systems. The major requirements of recent automotive radars are high angular resolution and multiple target detection with the constraints of small size, low power, and low cost. With appropriate transmitter spacing, co-located multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) radar can emulate larger aperture arrays, producing the required high angular resolution. However, MIMO radar requires waveforms that are orthogonal in frequency, time, or code domain, and orthogonal waveforms developed for pulse radars are unsuitable for automotive frequency modulated continuous waveform (FMCW) radars. This study proposes a code division multiplexing method for automotive MIMO radars by selecting the combined frequency shift key-linear FMCW waveform. The authors show the performance through simulation and discuss constraints. The proposed method is suitable for automotive radars because not only can high angular resolution be achieved by a small number of arrays, but also multiple targets can be detected with the low sampling rate and computational power.


    1. 1)
      • 1. Meinel, H.H.: ‘Evolving automotive radar: from the very beginnings into the future’. Proc. European Conf. Antennas and Propagation, Hague, The Netherlands, 2014, pp. 31073114.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Schneider, M.: ‘Automotive radar–status and trends’. German Microwave Conf., April 2005, pp. 144147.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Kobashi, S., Kurono, Y., Shono, M., et al: ‘3D-scan radar for automotive application’. Proc. ITS World Congress, Vienna, Austria, 2012, vol. 38, pp. 37.
    4. 4)
      • 4. Gresham, I., Jain, N., Budka, T., et al: ‘A compact manufacturable 76–77 GHz radar module for commercial ACC applications’, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., 2001, 49, (1), pp. 4458.
    5. 5)
      • 5. Grimes, D.M., Jones, T.O.: ‘Automotive radar: a brief review’, Proc. IEEE, 1974, 62, (6), pp. 804822.
    6. 6)
      • 6. Wenger, J.: ‘Automotive radar: status and perspectives’. Proc. IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp., Palm Springs, CA, 2005, pp. 2125.
    7. 7)
      • 7. Fölster, F., Rohling, H.: ‘Signal processing structure for automotive radar’, Frequenz, 2006, 60, (1/2), pp. 14.
    8. 8)
      • 8. Patole, S.M., et al: ‘Automotive radars: a review of signal processing techniques’, IEEE Signal Process. Mag., 2017, 34, (2), pp. 2235.
    9. 9)
      • 9. Sturm, C., Li, G., Lübbert, U.: ‘79 GHz automotive radar and its opportunities for frequency and bandwidth agile operation’. 2017 18th Int. Radar Symp. (IRS), 2017, pp. 16.
    10. 10)
      • 10. Kawano, Y., Matsumura, H., Soga, I., et al: ‘Millimeter-wave CMOS transceiver techniques for automotive radar systems’, FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., 2017, 53, (2), pp. 3137.
    11. 11)
      • 11. Rohling, H., Moller, C.: ‘Radar waveform for automotive radar systems and applications’. Radar Conf. 2008 RADAR'08, Rome, Italy, 2008, pp. 14.
    12. 12)
      • 12. Fishler, E., Haimovich, A., Blum, R., et al: ‘MIMO radar: an idea whose time has come’. Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., Philadelphia, PA, 2004, pp. 7178.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Sun, H., Brigui, F., Lesturgie, M.: ‘Analysis and comparison of MIMO radar waveforms’. 2014 Int. Radar Conf. (Radar), Lille, France, 2014, pp. 16.
    14. 14)
      • 14. Robey, F.C., Coutts, S., Weikle, D., et al: ‘MIMO radar theory and experimental results’. Conf. Record of the 38th Asilomar Conf. Signals, Systems and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, USA, January 2004, pp. 300304.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Li, J., Stoica, P.: ‘MIMO radar with colocated antennas’, IEEE Signal Process. Mag., 2007, 24, (5), pp. 106114.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Donnet, B.J., Longstaff, I.D.: ‘MIMO radar, techniques and opportunities’. Third European Radar Conf. EuRAD 2006, Manchester, UK, 2006, pp. 112115.
    17. 17)
      • 17. De Wit, J.J.M., Van Rossum, W.L., De Jong, A.J.: ‘Orthogonal waveforms for FMCW MIMO radar’. 2011 IEEE Radar Conf. (RADAR), 2011, pp. 686691.
    18. 18)
      • 18. Texas Instrument: ‘MIMO radar, application report’, SWRA554, May 2017.
    19. 19)
      • 19. Rohling, H., Meinecke, M.M.: ‘Waveform design principles for automotive radar systems’. 2001 CIE Int. Conf. Radar, Beijing, China, 2001, pp. 14.
    20. 20)
      • 20. Tait, P.: ‘Introduction to radar target recognition’ (IET, London, 2005).
    21. 21)
      • 21. Galati, G., Pavan, G., De Palo, F.: ‘Noise radar technology: pseudorandom waveforms and their information rate’. 15th Int. Radar Symp. (IRS), Gdansk, Poland, 2014, pp. 16.
    22. 22)
      • 22. Deng, H.: ‘Polyphase code design for orthogonal netted radar systems’, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 2004, 52, (11), pp. 31263135.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address