Your browser does not support JavaScript!

Virtual power plant and system integration of distributed energy resources

Virtual power plant and system integration of distributed energy resources

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Renewable Power Generation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

A concept is presented along with the overarching structure of the virtual power plant (VPP), the primary vehicle for delivering cost efficient integration of distributed energy resources (DER) into the existing power systems. The growing pressure, primarily driven by environmental concerns, for generating more electricity from renewables and improving energy efficiency have promoted the application of DER into electricity systems. So far, DER have been used to displace energy from conventional generating plants but not to displace their capacity as they are not visible to system operators. If this continues, this will lead to problematic over-capacity issues and under-utilisation of the assets, reduce overall system efficiency and eventually increase the electricity cost that needs to be paid by society. The concept of VPP was developed to enhance the visibility and control of DER to system operators and other market actors by providing an appropriate interface between these system components. The technical and commercial functionality facilitated through the VPP are described and concludes with case studies demonstrating the benefit of aggregation (VPP concept) and the use of the optimal power flow algorithm to characterise VPP.


    1. 1)
      • AREVA, “Energy Management System Application for Large Windfarm Projects”, presented in Glasgow conference, 2006.
    2. 2)
      • C. Schulz , G. Roder , M. Kurrat . Virtual power plants with combined heat and power micro-units.
    3. 3)
      • Platts, ‘Saar Targets Balancing Market’, Power in Europe no. 446, 2005, p. 16.
    4. 4)
      • R. Billinton , R.N. Allan . (1996) Reliability Evaluation of Power Systems.
    5. 5)
      • Department for Trade and Industry, “Reducing the Cost of System Intermittency Using Demand Side Control Measures,” DTI, London, 2006.
    6. 6)
      • S. Awerbuch , A. Preston . (1997) The Virtual Utility: Accounting, Technology & Competitive Aspects of the Emerging Industry.
    7. 7)
      • R. Bitsch . Integrating Diversity and Optimising Energy Use.
    8. 8)
    9. 9)
      • H. Wei , H. Sasaki , J. Kubokawa , R. Yokoyama . An interior point nonlinear programming for optimal power flow problems with a novel data structure. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems , 3 , 870 - 877
    10. 10)
      • R. Caldon , A. Rossi Patria , R. Turri . Optimal Control of a Distribution System with a Virtual Power Plant.
    11. 11)
      • D. Pudjianto , S. Ahmed , G. Strbac . Allocation of VArs support using LP and NLP based optimal power flows. IEE Proc., Gener. Transm. Distrib. , 4 , 377 - 383
    12. 12)
      • B. Willems . (2005) Physical and Financial Virtual Power Plants.
    13. 13)
      • Dielmann, K., van der Velden, A.: `Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) – A New Perspective for Energy Generation?', Modern Techniques and Technologies (MTT) 2003. Proc. 9th Int. Scientific and Practical Conference of Students, Post-graduates and Young Scientists, 7–11 April 2003, p. 18–20.
    14. 14)
      • K. Koen , C. Warmer , R. Kamphuis , P. Mellstrand , R. Gustavsson . Distributed Control in the Electricity Infrastructure.
    15. 15)
    16. 16)
    17. 17)

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address