Your browser does not support JavaScript!

access icon free Local penetration-free control approach against numerous changes in PV generation level in MAS-based protection schemes

Despite the increasing attention paid to multi-agent systems (MASs), their applications in protection schemes of distribution networks would face serious challenges when the generation level of photovoltaic (PV) systems is significantly increased, i.e. the inherent variable generation of PV systems would not only increase the communication burden, but it can also cause protection miscoordination. To solve this problem, this study first classifies the protection tasks into two hierarchical categories as the ‘first-control-level’ and ‘second-control-level’ functions, where the first group is responsible for the urgent task of fault clearing, and the second group updates protection settings in the event of network/generation changes. Given clearing the fault should be accomplished as soon as possible, the first-control-level functions are designed to require the least possible data communication. Presenting a penetration-free approach, the study next describes the mechanism of managing the various generation-change events through a first-control-level function. Therefore, communication failure, as well as protection miscoordination risks, would be mitigated. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated using a practical PV-integrated distribution network. This study tackles an important challenge in the protection of distribution systems with a high level of distributed generation penetration where MAS-based schemes are applied.


    1. 1)
      • 7. Rahman, M.S., Mahmud, M.A., Oo, A.M.T., et al: ‘Multi-agent approach for enhancing security of protection schemes in cyber-physical energy systems’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf., 2017, 13, (2), pp. 436447.
    2. 2)
      • 3. Habib, H.F., Youssef, T., Cintuglu, M.H., et al: ‘Multi-agent-based technique for fault location, isolation, and service restoration’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2017, 53, (3), pp. 18411851.
    3. 3)
      • 20. IEEE 1547-2018, ‘IEEE std 1547-2018 (revision of IEEE Std 1547-2003) IEEE standard for interconnection and interoperability of distributed energy resources with associated electric power systems interfaces’ (IEEE, USA, 2018).
    4. 4)
      • 14. Giovanini, R., Hopkinson, K., Coury, D.V., et al: ‘A primary and backup cooperative protection system based on wide area agents’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2006, 21, (3), pp. 12221230.
    5. 5)
      • 11. Ashrafi, A., Shahrtash, S.M.: ‘Dynamic wide area voltage control strategy based on organized multi-agent system’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2014, 29, (6), pp. 25902601.
    6. 6)
      • 4. Liu, Z., Su, C., Hoidalen, H.K., et al: ‘A multiagent system-based protection and control scheme for distribution system with distributed-generation integration’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2017, 32, (1), pp. 536545.
    7. 7)
      • 17. Duan, Y., Luo, L., Li, Y., et al: ‘Co-simulation of distributed control system based on JADE for smart distribution networks with distributed generations’, IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2017, 11, (12), pp. 30973105.
    8. 8)
      • 16. Sampaio, R.F., Melo, L.S., Leão, R.P.S., et al: ‘Automatic restoration system for power distribution networks based on multi-agent systems’, IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2017, 11, (2), pp. 475484.
    9. 9)
      • 12. Liu, Z., Chen, Z., Sun, H., et al: ‘Multiagent system-based wide-area protection and control scheme against cascading events’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2015, 30, (4), pp. 16511662.
    10. 10)
      • 2. Islam, S.R., Sutanto, D., Muttaqi, K.M.: ‘A distributed multi-agent based emergency control approach following catastrophic disturbances in interconnected power systems’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2016, 31, (4), pp. 27642775.
    11. 11)
      • 18. IEEE 929-2000, IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 on F.C. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers., IEEE-SA Standards Board: ‘IEEE 929 recommended practice for utility interface of photovoltaic (PV) systems’ (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 2000).
    12. 12)
      • 23. IEC 60255-1, ‘IEC 60255-1 measuring relays and protection equipment – part 1: common’ (IEC BSI, Switzerland, 2009).
    13. 13)
      • 8. Babalola, A.A., Belkacemi, R., Zarrabian, S.: ‘Real-time cascading failures prevention for multiple contingencies in smart grids through a multi-agent system’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2018, 9, (1), pp. 373385.
    14. 14)
      • 13. Baxevanos, I.S., Labridis, D.P.: ‘Implementing multiagent systems technology for power distribution network control and protection management’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2007, 22, (1), pp. 433443.
    15. 15)
      • 1. Cao, Y., Yu, W., Ren, W., et al: ‘An overview of recent progress in the study of distributed multi-agent coordination’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf., 2013, 9, (1), pp. 427438.
    16. 16)
      • 15. Pesente, J.R., Rolim, J.G., Moreto, M.: ‘Multiagent systems in power system protection: review, classification and perspectives’, IEEE Lat. Am. Trans., 2016, 14, (7), pp. 32853290.
    17. 17)
      • 10. Liu, H., Chen, X., Yu, K., et al: ‘The control and analysis of self-healing urban power grid’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2012, 3, (3), pp. 11191129.
    18. 18)
      • 6. Wan, H., Li, K.K., Wong, K.P.: ‘An adaptive multiagent approach to protection relay coordination with distributed generators in industrial power distribution system’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2010, 46, (5), pp. 21182124.
    19. 19)
      • 19. Yu, H., Shen, Z., Leung, C., et al: ‘A survey of multi-agent trust management systems’, IEEE Access, 2013, 1, pp. 3550.
    20. 20)
      • 21. Baran, M.E., Hooshyar, H., Shen, Z., et al: ‘Accommodating high PV penetration on distribution feeders’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2012, 3, (2), pp. 10391046.
    21. 21)
      • 9. Tong, X., Wang, X., Wang, R., et al: ‘The study of a regional decentralized peer-to-peer negotiation-based wide-area backup protection multi-agent system’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2013, 4, (2), pp. 11971206.
    22. 22)
      • 5. Manickam, A., Kamalasadan, S., Edwards, D., et al: ‘A novel self-evolving intelligent multiagent framework for power system control and protection’, IEEE Syst. J., 2014, 8, (4), pp. 10861095.
    23. 23)
      • 22. Barišić, M.: ‘IEC 60909-0-short-circuit currents in three-phase a c. systems – calculation of currents ENG’ (no date).

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address