Sizing of large-scale battery storage for off-grid wind power plant considering a flexible wind supply–demand balance

Sizing of large-scale battery storage for off-grid wind power plant considering a flexible wind supply–demand balance

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Renewable Power Generation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

In off-grid wind power plants, the uncertainty of net load becomes the main factor that controls the operation and planning of these plants. The term net load refers to system demand minus the generation from variable renewable resources. Energy storage system is a key solution for system operators to provide the required flexibility needed to balance the net load uncertainty. This study proposes a probabilistic approach for sizing a battery storage system (BSS) with the aim of mitigating the net load uncertainty associated with the off-grid wind power plant. A novel battery-sizing index that takes into account the probabilistic nature of the wind resources and the electric load is developed. The proposed sizing approach aims to quantify the required BSS capacity for operating the wind plant without incurring excessive battery installation cost as well as for reducing the mismatch between the wind generation and the electric load. An 8.5 MW utility-scale wind farm is used as a test system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.


    1. 1)
      • 1. Barton, J.P., Infield, D.G.: ‘Energy storage and its use with intermittent renewable energy’, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 2004, 19, (2), pp. 441448.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Masaud, T., Lee, K., Sen, P.: ‘An overview of energy storage technologies in electric power systems: what is the future’. IEEE North America Power Symp. (NAPS), Dallas, Texas, September, 2010, pp. 16.
    3. 3)
      • 3. The international renewable energy agency (IRENA): ‘Battery storage for renewables: market status and technology outlook’. IRENA Technical Report, January 2015.
    4. 4)
      • 4. Nikolaidis, A.I., Koumparou, Y., Makrides, G., et al: ‘Reliable integration of a concentrating solar power plant in a small isolated system through an appropriately sized battery energy storage system’, IET Renew. Power Gener., 2016, 10, (5), pp. 735742.
    5. 5)
      • 5. Kargarian, A., Hug, G.: ‘Optimal sizing of energy storage systems: a combination of hourly and intra-hour time perspectives’, IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2016, 10, (3), pp. 594600.
    6. 6)
      • 6. Tani, A., Camara, M.B., Dakyo, B.: ‘Energy management in the decentralized generation systems based on renewable energy – ultracapacitors and battery to compensate the wind/load power fluctuations’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2015, 51, (2), pp. 18171827.
    7. 7)
      • 7. Ke, X., Lu, N., Jin, C.: ‘Control and size energy storage systems for managing energy imbalance of variable generation resources’, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, 2015, 6, (1), pp. 7078.
    8. 8)
      • 8. Chakraborty, S., Senjyu, T., Toyama, H., et al: ‘Determination methodology for optimising the energy storage size for power system’, IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2009, 3, (11), pp. 987999.
    9. 9)
      • 9. Mohammadi, S., Mozafari, B., Solymani, S., et al: ‘Stochastic scenario-based model and investigating size of energy storages for pem-fuel cell unit commitment of micro-grid considering profitable strategies’, IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2014, 8, (7), pp. 12281243.
    10. 10)
      • 10. Sedghi, M., Ahmadian, A., Aliakbar-Golkar, M.: ‘Optimal storage planning in active distribution network considering uncertainty of wind power distributed generation’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2016, 31, (1), pp. 304316.
    11. 11)
      • 11. Ghofrani, M., Arabali, A., Etezadi-Amoli, M., et al: ‘Energy storage application for performance enhancement of wind integration’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2013, 28, (4), pp. 48034811.
    12. 12)
      • 12. Brekken, T.K.A., Yokochi, A., von Jouanne, A., et al: ‘Optimal energy storage sizing and control for wind power applications’, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, 2011, 2, (1), pp. 6977.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Zheng, Y., Dong, Z., Luo, F., et al: ‘Optimal allocation of energy storage system for risk mitigation of discos with high renewable penetrations’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2013, 29, (1), pp. 212220.
    14. 14)
      • 14. Yang, P., Nehorai, A.: ‘Joint optimization of hybrid energy storage and generation capacity with renewable energy’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2014, 5, (4), pp. 15661574.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Liu, Y., Du, W., Xiao, L., et al: ‘A method for sizing energy storage system to increase wind penetration as limited by grid frequency deviations’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2016, 31, (1), pp. 729737.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Firouzi, B.B., Abarghooee, R.A.: ‘Optimal sizing of battery energy storage for micro-grid operation management using a new improved bat algorithm’, J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 2014, 56, pp. 4254.
    17. 17)
      • 17. Gevorgian, V., Corbus, D.: ‘Ramping performance analysis of the Kahuku wind-energy battery storage system’. NREL Technical Report, NREL/MP-5D00-59003, November 2013.
    18. 18)
      • 18. Hagan, K.E., Oyebanjo, O.O., Masaud, T.M., et al: ‘A probabilistic forecasting model for accurate estimation of PV solar and wind power generation’. IEEE Power and Energy Conf. at Illinois (PECI), 19–20 February, 2016, pp. 15.
    19. 19)
      • 19. Atwa, Y.M., El-Saadany, E.F.: ‘Probabilistic approach for optimal allocation of wind-based distributed generation in distribution systems’, IET Renew. Power Gener., 2011, 5, (1), pp. 7988.
    20. 20)
      • 20. Li, Q., Choi, S.S., Yuan, Y., et al: ‘On the determination of battery energy storage capacity and short-term power dispatch of a wind farm’, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, 2011, 2, (2), pp. 148158.
    21. 21)
      • 21. Bitaraf, H., Rahman, S., Pipattanasomporn, M.: ‘Sizing energy storage to mitigate wind power forecast error impacts by signal processing technique’, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy., 2015, 6, (4), pp. 729737.
    22. 22)
      • 22. Ma, J.: ‘Evaluating and planning flexibility in a sustainable power system with large wind penetration’. PhD dissertation, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, 2012.
    23. 23)
      • 23. US Bureau of Reclamation(Online). Available at
    24. 24)
      • 24. Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT): (online). Available at
    25. 25)
      • 25. Atwa, Y.M., El-Saadany, E.F., Salama, M.M.A., et al: ‘Optimal renewable resources mix for distribution system energy loss minimization’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2010, 25, (1), pp. 360370.
    26. 26)
      • 26. Chang, J., Karkatsouli, I., Pfeifenberger, J., et al: ‘The value of distributed electricity storage in Texas: proposed policy for enabling grid-integrated storage investments’ (The Brattle Group, Inc., 2014).
    27. 27)
      • 27. Schwerin Battery Park. Younicos: (Online). Available at

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address