http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com
1887

Enhanced utility-scale photovoltaic units with frequency support functions and dynamic grid support for transmission systems

Enhanced utility-scale photovoltaic units with frequency support functions and dynamic grid support for transmission systems

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
$19.95
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Name:*
Email:*
Your details
Name:*
Email:*
Department:*
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
 
 
 
 
 
IET Renewable Power Generation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

This research presents a model of a utility-scale photovoltaic unit (USPVU) enhanced with an embedded hybrid energy storage system (HESS), suitable for stability studies in transmission systems. The main goal of this model is the simultaneous provision of primary frequency control and dynamic grid support. The primary frequency control includes both droop response (achieved by the frequency sensitive mode [FSM] operation) and inertial response (IR). To obtain these grid support functions, the research designed a suitable voltage and frequency (Vf) control, which coordinates the photovoltaic (PV) maximum power point tracking control, HESS converter control, and PV inverter control. Firstly, a midterm assessment of energy requirements in the sized HESS, based on frequency data, validated the energy availability of the enhanced USPVU for primary frequency control, according to new prequalification rules for energy-constrained units. Then, transient stability assessments were performed on a representative transmission system to check the performance of the added FSM and IR in USPVUs with dynamic grid support. The results of the frequency phenomena in the IEEE 39-bus system showed that the enhanced USPVU shared primary frequency control responsibilities with the conventional generation. This was achieved with two criteria to dispatch and commit conventional units by USPVUs.

References

    1. 1)
      • 1. Romero-Cadaval, E., Francois, B., Malinowski, M., et al: ‘Grid-connected photovoltaic plants: an alternative energy source, replacing conventional sources’, IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag., 2015, 9, (1), pp. 1832.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Yang, Y., Enjeti, P., Blaabjerg, F., et al: ‘Wide-scale adoption of photovoltaic energy: grid code modifications are explored in the distribution grid’, IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., 2015, 21, pp. 2131.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Hernández, J.C., De la Cruz, J., Ogayar, B.: ‘Electrical protection for the grid-interconnection of photovoltaic-distributed generation’, Electr. Power Syst. Res., 2012, 89, pp. 8599.
    4. 4)
      • 4. Bueno, P.G., Hernandez, J.C., Ruiz-Rodriguez, F.J.: ‘Stability assessment for transmission systems with large utility-scale photovoltaic units’, IET Renew. Power Gener., 2016, 10, pp. 584597.
    5. 5)
      • 5. Miller, N.W., Shao, M., Pajic, S., et al: ‘Western wind and solar integration study phase 3-frequency response and transient stability’. GE Energy Management Schenectady, Report NREL/SR-5D00-62906, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2014.
    6. 6)
      • 6. Yang, Y., Blaabjerg, F., Wang, H., et al: ‘Power control flexibilities for grid-connected multi-functional photovoltaic inverters’, IET Renew. Power Gener., 2016, 10, (4), pp. 504513.
    7. 7)
      • 7. Red Eléctrica de España: ‘Technical guidelines draft for wind and photovoltaic power plants connected directly to the distribution and transmission network: minimum requirements of design, equipment, operation, setting in service and security’, Spain, 2014(in Spanish).
    8. 8)
      • 8. European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity: ‘Network code on requirements for grid connection applicable to all generators’, 2015.
    9. 9)
      • 9. CENELEC TS 50549-1: ‘Requirements for generating plants to be connected in parallel with distribution networks – Part 1: Connection to a LV distribution network above 16 A’, 2015.
    10. 10)
      • 10. CENELEC TS 50549-2: ‘Requirements for generating plants to be connected in parallel with distribution networks – Part 2: Connection to a MV distribution network above 16 A’, 2015.
    11. 11)
      • 11. CEI Std. 0-16: ‘Reference technical rules for the connection of active and passive consumers to the HV and MV electrical networks of distribution company’, 2014.
    12. 12)
      • 12. CEI Std. 0-21: ‘Reference technical rules for the connection of active and passive users to the LV electrical utilities’, 2014.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Calderaro, V., Galdi, V., Lamberti, F., et al: ‘A smart strategy for voltage control ancillary service in distribution networks’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2015, 30, pp. 494502.
    14. 14)
      • 14. Hollinger, R., Diazgranados, L.M., Braam, F., et al: ‘Distributed solar battery systems providing primary control reserve’, IET Renew. Power Gener., 2016, 10, pp. 6370.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Koller, M., Gonzalez-Vaya, M., Chacko, A., et al: ‘Primary control reserves provision with battery energy storage systems in the largest European ancillary services cooperation’. 2016 Int. Council on Large Electric systems (CIGRE), August 2016, pp. 112.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Oudalov, A., Chartouni, D., Ohler, C.: ‘Optimizing a battery energy storage system for primary frequency control’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2007, 22, pp. 12591266.
    17. 17)
      • 17. Moutis, P., Vassilakis, A., Sampani, A., et al: ‘DC switch driven active power output control of photovoltaic inverters for the provision of frequency regulation’, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, 2015, 6, pp. 14851493.
    18. 18)
      • 18. Bhattacharya, S., Mishra, S.: ‘Efficient power sharing approach for photovoltaic generation based microgrids’, IET Renew. Power Gener., 2016, 10, (7), pp. 973987.
    19. 19)
      • 19. Nanou, S.I., Papakonstantinou, A.G., Papathanassiou, S.A.: ‘A generic model of two-stage grid-connected PV systems with primary frequency response and inertia emulation’, Electr. Power Syst. Res., 2015, 127, pp. 186196.
    20. 20)
      • 20. Kakimoto, N., Takayama, S., Satoh, H., et al: ‘Power modulation of PV generator for frequency control of power system’, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 2009, 24, pp. 943949.
    21. 21)
      • 21. Hill, C.A., Such, M.C., Chen, D., et al: ‘Battery energy storage for enabling integration of distributed solar power generation’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2012, 3, pp. 850857.
    22. 22)
      • 22. Adhikari, S., Li, F.: ‘Coordinated V-f and P-Q control of solar photovoltaic generators with MPPT and battery storage in microgrids’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2014, 5, pp. 12701281.
    23. 23)
      • 23. Sa-ngawong, N., Ngamroo, I.: ‘Intelligent photovoltaic farms for robust frequency stabilization in multi-area interconnected power system based on PSO-based optimal Sugeno fuzzy logic control’, Renew. Energy, 2015, 74, pp. 555567.
    24. 24)
      • 24. Mahmood, H., Michaelson, D., Jiang, J.: ‘Decentralized power management of a PV/battery hybrid unit in a droop-controlled islanded microgrid’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2015, 30, pp. 72157229.
    25. 25)
      • 25. Urtasun, A., Barrios, E.L., Sanchis, P., et al: ‘Frequency-based energy-management strategy for stand-alone systems with distributed battery storage’, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2015, 30, (9), pp. 47944808.
    26. 26)
      • 26. Hashemi, S., Ostergaard, J.: ‘Efficient control of energy storage for increasing the PV hosting capacity of LV grids’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2016, PP, (99), pp. 11.
    27. 27)
      • 27. Egwebe, A.M., Fazeli, M., Igic, P., et al: ‘Implementation and stability study of dynamic droop in islanded microgrids’, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 2016, 31, (3), pp. 821832.
    28. 28)
      • 28. Xin, H., Liu, Y., Wang, Z., et al: ‘A new frequency regulation strategy for photovoltaic systems without energy storage’, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, 2013, 4, pp. 985993.
    29. 29)
      • 29. Crăciun, B.-I., Kerekes, T., Séra, D., et al: ‘Frequency support functions in large PV power plants with active power reserves’, IEEE Trans. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron., 2014, 2, pp. 849858.
    30. 30)
      • 30. Uriarte, F.M., Smith, C., VanBroekhoven, S., et al: ‘Microgrid ramp rates and the inertial stability margin’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2015, 30, (6), pp. 32093216.
    31. 31)
      • 31. Esram, T., Chapman, P.: ‘Comparison of photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques’, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 2007, 22, pp. 439449.
    32. 32)
      • 32. European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity: ‘Network code on load frequency control and reserves’, 2013.
    33. 33)
      • 33. Hashemi, Y., Shayeghi, H., Moradzadeh, M., et al: ‘Financial compensation of energy security service provided by dual-branch controller of large-scale photovoltaic system in competitive electricity markets’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2016, 31, (3), pp. 22552265.
    34. 34)
      • 34. ‘STORE Project press release’, http://www.endesa.com/en/saladeprensa/noticias/energy-storage-plants-STORE-Project, accessed 15 August 2016.
    35. 35)
      • 35. Luo, X., Wang, J., Dooner, M., et al: ‘Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation’, Appl. Energy, 2015, 137, (1), pp. 511536.
    36. 36)
      • 36. Haidar, A.M.A., Muttaqi, K.M., Sutanto, D.: ‘Technical challenges for electric power industries due to grid-integrated electric vehicles in low voltage distributions: a review’, Energy Convers. Manage., 2014, 86, pp. 689700.
    37. 37)
      • 37. Godina, R., Paterakis, N.G., Erdinc, O., et al: ‘Impact of EV charging-at-work on an industrial client distribution transformer in a Portuguese Island’. 2015 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conf., December 2010, pp. 16.
    38. 38)
      • 38. IEA: ‘Technology Perspectives 2015’.
    39. 39)
      • 39. Wuhua, L.I., Chi, X.U., Hongbin, Y.U., et al: ‘Energy management with dual droop plus frequency dividing coordinated control strategy for electric vehicle applications’, J. Mod. Power Syst. Clean Energy, 2015, 3, pp. 212220.
    40. 40)
      • 40. Zhou, J.H., Ge, X.H., Zhang, X.S., et al: ‘Stability simulation of a MW-scale PV-small hydro autonomous hybrid system’. 2013 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July 2013, pp. 15.
    41. 41)
      • 41. Valverde, L., Rosa, F., del Real, A.J., et al: ‘Modeling, simulation and experimental set-up of a renewable hydrogen-based domestic microgrid’, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, 2013, 38, pp. 1167211684.
    42. 42)
      • 42. Mendis, N., Muttaqi, K.M., Perera, S.: ‘Management of low- and high-frequency power components in demand-generation fluctuations of a DFIG-based wind-dominated RAPS system using hybrid energy storage’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2014, 50, pp. 22582268..
    43. 43)
      • 43. Wehenkel, L., Cutsem, V., Ribbens-Pavella, M.: ‘An artificial intelligence framework for online transient stability assessment of power systems’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 1989, 4, pp. 789800.
    44. 44)
      • 44. ACER and European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity, European Commission: ‘System operation guideline draft’, 2015.
    45. 45)
      • 45. Pai, M.A.: ‘Energy function analysis for power system stability’ (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1989).
    46. 46)
      • 46. European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity: ‘Supporting document for the network code on load-frequency control and reserves’, 2013.
    47. 47)
      • 47. Doherty, R., Mullane, A., Nolan, G., et al: ‘An assessment of the impact of wind generation on system frequency control’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2010, 25, pp. 452460.
    48. 48)
      • 48. Rahmann, C., Vittal, V., Ascui, J., et al: ‘Mitigation control against partial shading effects in large-scale PV power plants’, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, 2016, 25, pp. 173180.
    49. 49)
      • 49. EirGrid and Soni: ‘DS3: System services review TSO recommendations’, 2012.
    50. 50)
      • 50. Wu, T., Chang, C., Lin, L., et al: ‘Power loss comparison of single-and two-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems’, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 2011, 26, pp. 707715.
    51. 51)
      • 51. Western Electricity Coordinating Council: ‘Generic solar photovoltaic system dynamic simulation model specification’, September 2012.
    52. 52)
      • 52. IEEE Std. 1547.2: ‘Application guide for IEEE 1547 standard for interconnecting distributed resources with electric power systems’, 2008.
    53. 53)
      • 53. Lu, D., Fakham, H., Zhou, T., et al: ‘Application of Petri Nets for the energy management of a photovoltaic based power station including storage units’, Renew. Energy, 2010, 35, pp. 11171124.
    54. 54)
      • 54. Bauman, J., Kazerani, M.A.: ‘Comparative study of fuel cell-battery, fuel-cell-ultracapacitor, and fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor vehicles’, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 2008, 57, pp. 760769.
http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1049/iet-rpg.2016.0714
Loading

Related content

content/journals/10.1049/iet-rpg.2016.0714
pub_keyword,iet_inspecKeyword,pub_concept
6
6
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address