Enhanced utility-scale photovoltaic units with frequency support functions and dynamic grid support for transmission systems

Enhanced utility-scale photovoltaic units with frequency support functions and dynamic grid support for transmission systems

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This research presents a model of a utility-scale photovoltaic unit (USPVU) enhanced with an embedded hybrid energy storage system (HESS), suitable for stability studies in transmission systems. The main goal of this model is the simultaneous provision of primary frequency control and dynamic grid support. The primary frequency control includes both droop response (achieved by the frequency sensitive mode [FSM] operation) and inertial response (IR). To obtain these grid support functions, the research designed a suitable voltage and frequency (Vf) control, which coordinates the photovoltaic (PV) maximum power point tracking control, HESS converter control, and PV inverter control. Firstly, a midterm assessment of energy requirements in the sized HESS, based on frequency data, validated the energy availability of the enhanced USPVU for primary frequency control, according to new prequalification rules for energy-constrained units. Then, transient stability assessments were performed on a representative transmission system to check the performance of the added FSM and IR in USPVUs with dynamic grid support. The results of the frequency phenomena in the IEEE 39-bus system showed that the enhanced USPVU shared primary frequency control responsibilities with the conventional generation. This was achieved with two criteria to dispatch and commit conventional units by USPVUs.


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