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Techno-economic evaluation of load frequency control systems for electric vehicle fleet integration

Techno-economic evaluation of load frequency control systems for electric vehicle fleet integration

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Environmental concerns and policy directives coupled with renewable energy penetration targets in Europe and United States are leading to a greater need for identifying technical and economic characteristics that facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the electricity network. An important step in mitigating instability associated with unregulated EV charging and renewable power feed-in is the integration of EVs as providers of load frequency control (LFC). This study presents an evaluation of six European and North American LFC systems on the basis of EV characteristics to identify suitability for EV integration. The evaluation shows that the Eastern Denmark network is most feasible for frequency containment and restoration reserve using EVs.

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