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Operational experiences with inertial response provided by type 4 wind turbines

Operational experiences with inertial response provided by type 4 wind turbines

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The need for inertial response provided by wind turbines (WTs) has been discussed in the industry for more than five years now. Yet, as of today only very few grid codes include specific requirements. Hence, the number of wind farms in commercial operation using such frequency control features is low, and knowledge of the real capabilities and limitations of inertial response from WTs is limited. The objective of this article was to summarise and to assess two years of operational experience with inertial response provided by type 4 WTs installed in a 138 MW wind farm in the Canadian province of Québec. In order to put the topic into context, existing and anticipated future grid code requirements in respect to inertial response as well as related performance criteria were summarised. Data from high-frequency measurement devices recorded at various operating conditions and grid situations was downloaded and processed. The actual performance was compared with the expected characteristics for each of the measurements, which allowed identifying areas for further development. Results of dynamic simulations demonstrated that the methodology and the models used for frequency control studies need to be improved.

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