Your browser does not support JavaScript!

Technical grid connection guides for distributed electricity generation systems: a new DERlab database has come alive

Technical grid connection guides for distributed electricity generation systems: a new DERlab database has come alive

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Renewable Power Generation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

The increasing share of distributed energy resources (DER) in electricity production requires new sources and techniques in grid support services to keep the quality and reliability of power supply high. Addressing this matter, DER systems are required to follow technical grid connection requirements determined by distribution system operators (DSOs). Currently, these requirements widely differ from country to country. Recent studies suggest developing unified grid connection requirements for DER on the international level. This unification currently is the main activity for DSOs and standardisation organisations in the field of grid-connected DER. To support this activity, the present article (i) offers a status report on recent studies relevant to the harmonisation of DER grid connection requirements, and (ii) identifies and discusses current DER grid connection guides, namely standards of international and European standardisation organisations, as well as regulations of national DSOs from Austria, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Switzerland (German-speaking part) and the United Kingdom. The guides are collected and grouped according to the technical area and technology in a database: The database is a tool for finding relevant DER grid connection guides for a specific region, technical area and/or technology. The target audience of the database is DER system developers.


    1. 1)
      • 7. European Commission: ‘Standardization Mandate to European Standardisation Organisations (ESOs) to support European Smart Grid deployment’, 2011, pp. 18.
    2. 2)
      • 16. Kish, G.J., Lehn, P.W.: ‘Microgrid design considerations for next generation grid codes’. Proc. IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, July 2012, pp. 18.
    3. 3)
      • 23. IEC: ‘Coping with the Energy Challenge The IEC's role from 2010 to 2030’, 2010, pp. 175.
    4. 4)
    5. 5)
      • 30. CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group: ‘Sustainable Processes’, 2012, pp. 1101.
    6. 6)
      • 2. EWEA: ‘Wind in power: 2012 European statistics’, 2013, pp. 114.
    7. 7)
      • 8. EURELECTRIC: ‘DSO Priorities for Smart Grid Standardisation’, 2013, pp. 124.
    8. 8)
      • 11. CEN-CENELEC-ETSI: ‘Final report of the CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Joint Working Group on Standards for Smart Grids’2011, pp. 1141.
    9. 9)
      • 6. ENTSO-E: ‘ENTSO-E Network Code for Requirements for Grid Connection Applicable to all Generators’, 2013, pp. 185.
    10. 10)
      • 18. Kling, W.L., Söder, L., Erlich, I., et al: ‘Wind power grid integration: the European experience’. Proc. 17th Power Systems Computation Conf., Stockholm, Sweden, August 2011, pp. 115.
    11. 11)
      • 5. ENTSO-E, EDSO for Smart Grids: ‘The European Electricity Grid Initiative (EEGI)’, 2010, pp. 145.
    12. 12)
      • 3. Commission of the European Communities: A European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), 2007, pp. 114.
    13. 13)
      • 31. CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group: ‘First Set of Standards’, 2012, pp. 1216.
    14. 14)
      • 32. CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group: ‘Programme of standardisation work for the Smart Grid’, 2012, pp. 157.
    15. 15)
      • 13. Kaestle, G., Vrana, T.K.: ‘Improved requirements for the connection to the low voltage grid’. Proc. CIRED 21st Int. Conf. on Electricity Distribution, Frankfurt, Germany, June 2011, pp. 15.
    16. 16)
      • 9. ACER: ‘Framework Guidelines on Electricity Grid Connections’, 2011, pp. 114.
    17. 17)
      • 15. Preda, T.N., Uhlen, K., Nordgard, D.E.: ‘An overview of the present grid codes for integration of distributed generation’. Proc. Integration of Renewables into the Distribution Grid, CIRED Workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, May 2012, pp. 14.
    18. 18)
      • 1. EPIA: ‘Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2013–2017’, 2013, pp. 158.
    19. 19)
    20. 20)
      • 25. Rahmann, C., Möller, R., Salles, M.B.C.: ‘Frequency Stability Support Requirements for WTs in Slow-Response Thermal Power Systems’. IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), Vancouver, BC, USA, July 2013, pp. 15.
    21. 21)
      • 10. EURELECTRIC: ‘Network Codes for System Operation’, 2012, pp. 111.
    22. 22)
      • 27. Xiaokang, X., Edmonds, M.J.S., Bishop, M., Sember, J.: ‘Application of distributed static compensators in wind farms to meet grid codes’. Proc. Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conf. (APPEEC), Shanghai, China, March 2012, pp. 15.
    23. 23)
      • 14. Yongheng, Y., Enjeti, P., Blaabjerg, F., Huai, W.: ‘Suggested grid code modifications to ensure wide-scale adoption of photovoltaic energy in distributed power generation systems’. Proc. IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA, October 2013, pp. 18.
    24. 24)
      • 12. Kotsampopoulos, P., Hatziargyriou, N., Bletterie, B., Lauss, G.: ‘Review, analysis and recommendations on recent guidelines for the provision of ancillary services by Distributed Generation’. IEEE Int. Workshop on Intelligent Energy Systems (IWIES), Vienna, Austria, November 2013, pp. 185190.
    25. 25)
      • 4. European Parliament and Council: ‘Directive 2009/28/EC’, Off. J. Eur. Union, 2009, L 140, pp. 1662.
    26. 26)
      • 26. Joseph, D.M., Haigh, P., McCullagh, J.: ‘Ensuring grid code harmonic compliance of wind farms’. Proc. 10th IET Int. Conf. on AC and DC Power Transmission (ACDC 2012), Birmingham, United Kingdom, December 2012, pp. 16.
    27. 27)
      • 29. CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group: ‘Smart Grid Reference Architecture’, 2012, pp. 1107.
    28. 28)
    29. 29)
      • 33. CEDEC, EDSO, EURELECTRIC, Geode: ‘DSO associations response to ENTSO-E public consultation on the Emergency and Restoration Network code’, 2014, pp. 14.
    30. 30)
      • 28. NIST: ‘NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards’, 2012, pp. 1225.
    31. 31)
    32. 32)
      • 34. EDSO for Smart Grids: ‘Establishment of annual priority lists for the development of network codes and guidelines for 2015 and beyond – EDSO response to European Commission public consultation’, 2014, pp. 13.
    33. 33)
      • 19. IEC: ‘Grid integration of large-capacity Renewable Energy sources and use of large-capacity Electrical Energy Storage’, 2012, pp. 1114.
    34. 34)
      • 24. IEC: ‘IEC Smart Grid Standardization Roadmap’, 2010, pp. 1136.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address