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Optimal power flow tool for mixed high-voltage alternating current and high-voltage direct current systems for grid integration of large wind power plants

Optimal power flow tool for mixed high-voltage alternating current and high-voltage direct current systems for grid integration of large wind power plants

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This study presents a tool for solving optimal power flows (OPFs) in hybrid high-voltage direct current (HVDC) and high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) systems for grid integration of large wind power plants, located either offshore or onshore. The OPF departs from the assumption that the power being produced from the wind power plants is known, as well as the demand from the AC grid. To model the interaction between the DC and AC grids, the active power conservation is expressed between the AC side and DC side of each converter, taking into consideration converter losses (modelled as a second-order polynomial). The tool developed determines the voltages and the active and reactive power in each bus and branch that ensure the selected objective function. All the electrical variables are limited. Moreover, the currents flowing in each DC and AC branch are also limited. The maximum AC voltage that can be applied by the converters is also limited. To develop the tool, both HVDC and HVAC grids need to be represented appropriately through its impedances and admittances. The tool has been implemented through MATLAB® optimisation toolbox and through a more specific optimisation software GAMS®, leading to the same results for the study case presented.

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