Your browser does not support JavaScript!

access icon free Worldwide photovoltaic energy yield sensitivity from a variety of input losses

The energy yield of a system depends largely on how the photovoltaic (PV) panels perform at different weather conditions (particularly plane of array irradiance and module temperature) summed over the hourly meteorological data for a year at the given site. Some of the PV performance parameters such as ‘efficiency at low light/efficiency at standard conditions’ and the ‘P MAX thermal coefficient’ can vary between technologies and may be able to be improved by better production methods (for example, improving uniformity, reducing shunts, reducing series resistance or improving the thermal design). The sensitivity of energy yield (kilowatt hour/year) against PV input value will be site dependent, for example, high insolation sites will usually experience higher module temperatures so that improvements in temperature coefficients would be more beneficial at higher than at lower insolation. This study studies the effect of the sensitivity of energy yield at five different sites (from northern Europe to desert) of six different PV input values (including low-light efficiency, P MAX temperature coefficient and nominal operating cell temperature). It quantifies the benefits at each site of good temperature coefficients or improving the low-light efficiency and also the need for wide V MP inverter ranges at sites with wide seasonal temperature differences.


    1. 1)
      • 6. IEC 61853-1 – ‘Photovoltaic (PV) module performance testing and energy rating – Part 1: Irradiance and temperature performance measurements and power rating’.
    2. 2)
      • 4. Jordan, : ‘Methods for analysis of outdoor performance data’, PV Reliability Golden 2011 link.
    3. 3)
      • 10. IEC 61724/2 ‘PV System Performance Monitoring – Guidelines for measurements, Data Exchange and Analysis’.
    4. 4)
      • 3. Jahn, U., Schweiger, M., Herrmann, W.: ‘Comparison of different thin-film technologies – performance characteristics obtained from laboratory and field tests’. 25th PVSEC Valencia, 2010.
    5. 5)
      • 14. Artigao, A., Cunningham, D.W., Deponte, K., et al: ‘4% Higher energy conversion from BP 7180 modules’. 21st PVSEC Dresden, 2006.
    6. 6)
      • 17. Ruther, R., del Cueto, J., Tamizh-Mani, G.: ‘Performance test of amorphous silicon modules in different climates – year four: progress in understanding exposure history stabilization effects’. 33rd PVSC San Diego, 2008.
    7. 7)
      • 2. Ueda, Y., Tsuno, Y., Kudou, M., Konishi, H., Kurokawa, K.: ‘Performance degradation analyses of different kinds of PV technologies in Hokuto mega solar project’. 26th PVSEC Hamburg, 2011.
    8. 8)
      • 16. Nelson, L., Frichtl, M., Panchula, A.: ‘Changes in cadmium telluride PV system performance due to spectrum’. 38th PVSC Austin, 2012.
    9. 9)
      • 15. IEC 61853-2 – ‘Angle of Incidence Effect on Photovoltaic Modules’.
    10. 10)
      • 12. ‘PVSYST Navigation: Project design Array and system losses’. Available at, accessed 21 January 2015.
    11. 11)
      • 7. Cameron, C.P., Goodrich, A.C.: ‘The levelized cost of energy for distributed PV: a parametric study’. PVSC, 2009.
    12. 12)
      • 19. King, D., Boyson, W.E., Kratochvill, J.A.: ‘Photovoltaic array performance model’. Available at, accessed 21 January 2015.
    13. 13)
      • 18. Ransome, S., Wohlgemuth, J.: ‘Predicting kWh/kWp performance for amorphous silicon thin film modules’. 28th PVSC Anchorage, Alaska, USA, September 2000, Paper 5P1.15.
    14. 14)
      • 8. Ringbeck, S., Sutterlueti, J.: ‘BoS costs: status and optimization to reach industrial grid parity’. 27th PVSEC Frankfurt, 2012.
    15. 15)
      • 13. ‘PV Performance Modeling Collaborative (PVPMC)’ modelling steps. Available at, accessed 21 January 2015.
    16. 16)
      • 9. ‘Datasheet and nameplate information for photovoltaic modules BS EN 50380:2003’. Available at, accessed 21 January 2015.
    17. 17)
      • 1. Zinsser, , Makrides, G., Schubert, M.B., Georghiou, G.E., Werner, J.H.: ‘Rating of annual energy yield more sensitive to reference power than module technology’. 35th PVSC Honolulu, 2010.
    18. 18)
      • 5. Jordan, D.C., Wohlgemuth, J.H., Kurtz, S.R.: ‘Technology and climate trends in PV module degradation’. 27th PVSEC Frankfurt, 2012.
    19. 19)
      • 11. Ransome, S., Sutterlueti, J.: ‘Estimating the sensitivity of energy performance from optimising different PV technologies worldwide’. 39th IEEE PVSC Tampa, Florida, USA, June 2013. Paper #80.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address