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Stable operating area of photovoltaic cells feeding DC–DC converter in output voltage regulation mode

Stable operating area of photovoltaic cells feeding DC–DC converter in output voltage regulation mode

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From the perspective of output voltage control stability, this study investigates the stable operating area of photovoltaic (PV) cells feeding the DC–DC converter in output voltage regulation (OVR) mode. In this study, the boost interface converter is taken as an example, and its control system arrangements, small-signal model including the dynamic equivalent circuit of PV cells and the closed-loop transfer functions with different control loop formation are deduced at first. After that, according to the Hurwitz criterion, the essential condition for output voltage control stability is analysed and the relations between control loop formation of the interface converter in OVR mode and the stable operating area are obtained. The validity of the theoretical analysis has been verified by the experiment and simulation results of a 150 W prototype. The investigation shows that: (i) no matter what kind of control loop formation is adopted, the PV cells cannot output the maximum power when the PV interface converter operates in OVR mode; (ii) when the interface converter operates in OVR mode, PV cells can only operate stably in voltage area or current area. Moreover, the type of operating area entirely depends on the converter's output voltage control loop formation.

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