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A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms

A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms

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This paper provides an overview of grid code technical requirements regarding the connection of large wind farms to the electric power systems. The grid codes examined are generally compiled by transmission system operators (TSOs) of countries or regions with high wind penetration and therefore incorporate the accumulated experience after several years of system operation at significant wind penetration levels. The paper focuses on the most important technical requirements for wind farms, included in most grid codes, such as active and reactive power regulation, voltage and frequency operating limits and wind farm behaviour during grid disturbances. The paper also includes a review of modern wind turbine technologies, regarding their capability of satisfying the requirements set by the codes, demonstrating that recent developments in wind turbine technology provide wind farms with stability and regulation capabilities directly comparable to those of conventional generating plants.

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