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access icon openaccess Quantum key distribution integration with optical dense wavelength division multiplexing: a review

Quantum key distribution (QKD) can ensure information security between two remote parties. To commercialise QKD technology successfully, it should be integrated with dense wavelength division multiplexing optical transport. However, various challenges limit the QKD's performance in terms of the quantum key rate, quantum bit error rates, and maximum achievable distance. In this study, the authors discuss some of the major practical limiting factors for QKD performance such as spontaneous Raman scattering, four-wave mixing, and amplified spontaneous emission.

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