Your browser does not support JavaScript!
http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com
1887

access icon free Femtosecond mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser with Alq3 saturable absorber

The authors experimentally demonstrated the generation of mode-locked pulses from all-fibre erbium-doped fibre laser cavity by using organic material, Alq3, as a saturable absorber (SA). The SA film was integrated into a ring fibre laser cavity to act as a mode-locker. A mode-locking operation was achieved in three different experiments with pulse width/repetition rate of 1.26 ps/3.36 MHz, 970 fs/3.36 MHz and 820 fs/4.9 MHz by using cavity length/optical coupler (OC) of 61.5 m/80:20 OC, 61.5 m /95:5 OC and 42 m/80:20 OC, respectively. All the experiments produced a soliton and a very stable mode-locking operation at central wavelength of ∼1561 nm. The experiments confirmed that organic material can readily be used as SA for a mode-locked operation in the 1.5 μm region. This demonstration might shed new insights into the potentials and techniques for developing ultrafast fibre lasers by using organic materials as SAs.

References

    1. 1)
      • 48. Ausschnitt, C.P., Jain, R.K., Heritage, J.P.: ‘Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser’, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., 1979, 15, pp. 912917.
    2. 2)
      • 39. Aziz, S.B., Rasheed, M.A., Saeed, S.R., et al: ‘Synthesis and characterization of Cds nanoparticles grown in a polymer solution using in-situ chemical reduction technique’, Int. J. Electrochem Sci., 2017, 12, pp. 32633274.
    3. 3)
      • 23. Nel, A., Xia, T., Mädler, L., et al: ‘Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel’, Sci., 2006, 311, (5761), pp. 622627.
    4. 4)
      • 47. Smith, N. J., Blow, K. J., Andonovic, I.: ‘Sideband generation through perturbations to the average soliton model’, J. Lightwave Technol., 1992, 10, (10), pp. 13291333.
    5. 5)
      • 24. Kim, J.-M., Jha, S.K., Lee, D.-H., et al: ‘A flexible pentacene thin film transistors as disposable DNA hybridization sensor’, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 2012, 18, (5), pp. 16421646.
    6. 6)
      • 38. Elashmawi, I., Hakeem, N., Selim, M.S.: ‘Optimization and spectroscopic studies of Cds/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites’, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2009, 115, (1), pp. 132135.
    7. 7)
      • 10. Luo, Z., Zhou, M., Weng, J., et al:Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser’, Opt. Lett., 2010, 35, (21), pp. 37093711.
    8. 8)
      • 30. Aziz, A., Narasimhan, K.L.: ‘Subband gap optical absorption and defects in tris(8 hydroxy quinolato) aluminium’, Synth. Met., 2002, 131, (1), pp. 7177.
    9. 9)
      • 50. Zhang, L., El-Damak, A.R., Feng, Y., et al: ‘Experimental and numerical studies of mode-locked fiber laser with large normal and anomalous dispersion’, Opt. Express, 2013, 21, (10), pp. 1201412021.
    10. 10)
      • 28. Li, H., Zhang, F., Wang, Y., et al: ‘Synthesis and characterization of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum’, Mater. Sci. Eng. B., 2003, 100, (1), pp. 4046.
    11. 11)
      • 43. Ahmad, H., Reduan, S. A., Safaei, R.: ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched thulium-fluoride fiber laser for S/S band using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a saturable absorber’, (in English), Laser Phys., 2017, 27, (6), p. 065103.
    12. 12)
      • 14. Cui, Y.D., Liu, X.M., Zeng, C.: ‘Conventional and dissipative solitons in a CFBG-based fiber laser mode-locked with a graphene–nanotube mixture’, Laser Phys. Lett., 2014, 11, (5), p. 055106.
    13. 13)
      • 32. Salam, S., Wong, W.R., Al-Masoodi, A.H.H., et al: ‘High-energy Q-switched ytterbium-doped all-fiber laser with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum as saturable absorber’, Opt. Mater. Express, 2019, 9, (8), pp. 32153225.
    14. 14)
      • 31. Yang, X., Feng, X., Xin, J., et al: ‘Highly efficient crystalline organic light-emitting diodes’, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018, 6, (33), pp. 88798884.
    15. 15)
      • 22. Jiang, X., Zhang, L., Liu, S., et al: ‘Ultrathin metal–organic framework: an emerging broadband nonlinear optical material for ultrafast photonics’, Adv. Opt. Mater., 2018, 6, (16), p. 1800561.
    16. 16)
      • 7. Martinez, A., Fuse, K., Yamashita, S.: ‘Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers’, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2011, 99, (12), p. 121107.
    17. 17)
      • 51. Li, J., Zhang, Z., Du, L., et al: ‘Highly stable femtosecond pulse generation from a MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) mode-locked fiber laser’, Photonics Res., 2019, 7, (3), pp. 260264.
    18. 18)
      • 36. Schellekens, R., Bastiaansen, C.: ‘The drawing behavior of polyvinylalcohol fibers’, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1991, 43, (12), pp. 23112315.
    19. 19)
      • 21. Khazaeinezhad, R., Hosseinzadeh Kassani, S., Paulson, B., et al: ‘Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser’, Sci. Rep., 2017, 7, (1), p. 41480.
    20. 20)
      • 25. Yook, K.S., Lee, J.Y.: ‘Simplified p-i-n organic light-emitting diodes using an universal ambipolar material’, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 2012, 18, (1), pp. 309311.
    21. 21)
      • 2. Fermann, M.E., Hartl, I.: ‘Ultrafast fibre lasers’, Nat. Photonics, 2013, 7, p. 868.
    22. 22)
      • 40. Cuba, M., Muralidharan, G.: ‘Improved luminescence intensity and stability of thermal annealed Zno incorporated alq 3 composite films’, J. Fluoresc., 2015, 25, (6), pp. 16291635.
    23. 23)
      • 3. Liu, X., Cui, Y., Han, D., et al: ‘Distributed ultrafast fibre laser’, Sci. Rep., 2015, 5, p. 9101.
    24. 24)
      • 35. Mao, D., Jiang, B., Gan, X., et al: ‘Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi 2 Te 3 saturable absorbers’, Photonics Res., 2015, 3, (2), pp. A43A46.
    25. 25)
      • 13. Ahmed, M.H.M., Al-Masoodi, A.H.H., Latiff, A.A., et al: ‘Mechanically exfoliated 2D nanomaterials as saturable absorber for Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser’, Indian J. Phys., 2017, 91, (10), pp. 12591264.
    26. 26)
      • 42. Chen, H.-R., Tsai, C.-Y., Cheng, H.-M., et al: ‘High-quality and large-size topological insulator Bi2Te3-gold saturable absorber mirror for mode-locking fiber Laser’, Sci. Rep., 2016, 6, (1), p. 38444.
    27. 27)
      • 53. Niu, K., Sun, R., Chen, Q., et al: ‘Passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on Sns 2 nanosheets as a saturable absorber’, Photonics Res., 2018, 6, (2), pp. 7276.
    28. 28)
      • 54. Ahmad, H., Reduan, S.A., Yusoff, N., et al: ‘Mode-locked pulse generation in erbium-doped fiber laser by evanescent field interaction with reduced graphene oxide-titanium dioxide nanohybrid’, Opt. Laser Technol., 2019, 118, pp. 93101.
    29. 29)
      • 12. Yan, P., Liu, A., Chen, Y., et al: ‘Microfiber-based WS 2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics’, Opt. Mater. Express, 2015, 5, (3), pp. 479489.
    30. 30)
      • 19. Li, J., Luo, H., Zhai, B., et al: ‘Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers’, Sci. Rep., 2016, 6, p. 30361.
    31. 31)
      • 8. Ahmed, M.H.M., Salleh, Z.S., Ali, N.M., et al: ‘Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in polyethylene oxide film saturable absorber’, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., 2014, 56, (11), pp. 27342737.
    32. 32)
      • 46. Lazaridis, P., Debarge, G., Gallion, P.: ‘Time–bandwidth product of chirped sech2 pulses: application to phase–amplitude-coupling factor measurement’, Opt. Lett., 1995, 20, (10), pp. 11601162.
    33. 33)
      • 33. Salam, S., Harun, S.W., Al-Masoodi, A.H. H., et al: ‘Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin film as saturable absorber for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber Laser’, IET Optoelectron., 2019, 13, (5), pp. 247253.
    34. 34)
      • 26. Kim, J.Y., Lee, K., Coates, N.E., et al: ‘Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing’, Science, 2007, 317, (5835), pp. 222225.
    35. 35)
      • 18. Feng, T., Mao, D., Cui, X., et al: ‘A filmy black-phosphorus polyimide saturable absorber for Q-switched operation in an erbium-doped fiber laser’, Materials (Basel), 2016, 9, (11), p. 917.
    36. 36)
      • 6. Zhang, H., Tang, D., Zhao, L., et al: ‘Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene’, Opt. Express, 2009, 17, (20), pp. 1763017635.
    37. 37)
      • 52. Chen, T., Zhang, Q., Zhang, Y., et al: ‘All-fiber passively mode-locked laser using nonlinear multimode interference of step-index multimode fiber’, Photonics Res., 2018, 6, (11), pp. 10331039.
    38. 38)
      • 41. Ahmed, M., Latiff, A., Arof, H., et al: ‘Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked with a black phosphorus saturable absorber’, Laser Phys. Lett., 2016, 13, (9), p. 095104.
    39. 39)
      • 27. Xie, W., He, W.-W., Du, D.-Y., et al: ‘A stable Alq3@MOF composite for white-light emission’, Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, (16), pp. 32883291.
    40. 40)
      • 15. Latiff, A.A., Kadir, N.A., Ismail, E.I., et al: ‘All-fiber dual-wavelength Q-switched and mode-locked EDFL by SMF-THDF-SMF structure as a saturable absorber’, Opt. Commun., 2017, 389, pp. 2934.
    41. 41)
      • 11. Kataura, H., Kumazawa, Y., Maniwa, Y., et al: ‘Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes’, Synth. Met., 1999, 103, (1–3), pp. 25552558.
    42. 42)
      • 17. Chen, Y., Jiang, G., Chen, S., et al: ‘Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation’, Opt. Express, 2015, 23, (10), pp. 1282312833.
    43. 43)
      • 37. Wu, K., Zhang, X., Wang, J., et al: ‘WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers’, Opt. Express, 2015, 23, (9), pp. 1145311461.
    44. 44)
      • 9. Cui, Y., Liu, X.: ‘Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons’, Opt. Express, 2013, 21, (16), pp. 1896918974.
    45. 45)
      • 44. Li, D., Jussila, H., Wang, Y., et al: ‘Wavelength and pulse duration tunable ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes’, Sci. Rep., 2018, 8, (1), pp. 18.
    46. 46)
      • 4. Ding, Z., Gao, X., Guo, L., et al: ‘A hybrid search engine framework for the internet of things based on spatial-temporal, value-based, and keyword-based conditions’. 2012 IEEE Int. Conf. on Green Computing and Communications, Besancon, France, 2012, pp. 1725.
    47. 47)
      • 45. Liu, X.: ‘Soliton formation and evolution in passively-mode-locked lasers with ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers’, Phys. Rev. A, 2011, 84, (2), p. 023835.
    48. 48)
      • 20. Jiang, X., Li, W., Hai, T., et al: ‘Inkjet-printed MXene micro-scale devices for integrated broadband ultrafast photonics’, npj 2D Mater. Appl., 2019, 3, (1), p. 34.
    49. 49)
      • 34. Salam, S., Al-Masoodi, A.H. H., Yasin, M., et al: ‘Soliton mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by using Alq3 saturable absorber’, Opt. Laser Technol., 2020, 123, p. 105893.
    50. 50)
      • 1. Grelu, P., Akhmediev, N.: ‘Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers’, Nat. Photonics, 2012, 6, p. 84.
    51. 51)
      • 49. Xu, J., Liu, J., Wu, S., et al: ‘Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers’, Opt. Express, 2012, 20, (14), pp. 1547415480.
    52. 52)
      • 29. Dalasiński, P., Łukasiak, Z., Wojdyła, M., et al: ‘Study of optical properties of TRIS (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (III)’, Opt. Mater., 2006, 28, (1–2), pp. 98101.
    53. 53)
      • 16. Zhao, C., Zhang, H., Qi, X., et al: ‘Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber’, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2012, 101, (21), p. 211106.
    54. 54)
      • 5. Chang, Y.M., Lee, J., Lee, J.H.: ‘Active mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser using an ultrafast silicon-based variable optical attenuator’, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 2012, 51, (7R), p. 072701.
http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1049/iet-opt.2019.0171
Loading

Related content

content/journals/10.1049/iet-opt.2019.0171
pub_keyword,iet_inspecKeyword,pub_concept
6
6
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address