Steerable miniaturised printed quadrifilar helical array antenna using digital phase shifters for BGAN/GPS applications

Steerable miniaturised printed quadrifilar helical array antenna using digital phase shifters for BGAN/GPS applications

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

A novel electronically steerable phased array antenna is developed for global positioning system/broadband global area network (GPS/BGAN) navigation applications. The array is composed of 2 × 2 printed quadrifilar helical antennas (PQHAs) integrated with digital phase shifters for beam steering over the transmit/receive bands. The feed network of each PQHA is based on a sequential rotation to achieve wideband circular polarisation (CP). An elegant control network with the embedded microcontroller is designed to provide driving bits to the phase shifters with reduced phase error. The meandered line design maintains high-performance CP radiation up to ±60° off-axis, within 1525 to 1660 MHz, and its size is 44% of the design with straight lines. The array gain is positive over 1450–1800 MHz beyond the BGAN band, with better than 13 dB return loss and <2.2 dB axial ratio. The measured broadside gain of the array exceeds 8.5 dBi at 1600 MHz, and has a wide beam steering of ∼±80° over the BGAN band. The developed antenna represents a significant technical advance to the design and manufacturing of PQHA array, it has a compact size, low cost and lightweight with a relatively large bandwidth and almost hemispherical coverage with excellent right-hand circularly polarized radiation.


    1. 1)
      • 1. Morse, D., Griep, K.: ‘Next generation FANS over Inmarsat broadband global area network (BGAN)’. The 23rd DASC Conf., Salt Lake City, UT, USA, 2004, pp. 11.B.4-111.B.4-13.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Sandhoo, K., Turner, D., Shaw, M.: ‘Modernization of the global positioning system’. The 13th Int. Tech. Meeting of the Satellite Division, Salt Lake City, USA, 2000, pp. 21752183.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Amin, M., Ahmed, S., Fusco, V., et al: ‘The effect of spatial axial ratio variation on QPSK modulation encoded using orthogonal circularly polarized signals’. European Conf. Wireless Technologies, Munich, Germany, 2007, pp. 6265.
    4. 4)
      • 4. O'Kane, S., Fusco, V.: ‘Circularly polarized curl antenna lens with tilt properties’, IEEE Trans. Ant. Propag., 2009, 57, (12), pp. 39843987.
    5. 5)
      • 5. Richards, W., Lo, Y.: ‘Design and theory of circularly polarized microstrip antennas’. Int. Symp. Antennas Propagation Society, Seattle, WA, USA, 1979, pp. 117120.
    6. 6)
      • 6. Chung, K.L., Mohan, A.S.: ‘A systematic design method to obtain broadband characteristics for singly-fed electromagnetically coupled patch antennas for circular polarization’, IEEE Trans. Ant. Propag., 2003, 51, (12), pp. 32393248.
    7. 7)
      • 7. Karmakar, N., Bialkowski, M.: ‘Circularly polarized aperture-coupled circular microstrip patch antennas for L-band applications’, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 1999, 47, (5), pp. 933940.
    8. 8)
      • 8. Takacs, A., Aubert, H., Belot, D., et al: ‘Miniaturization of compact quadrifilar helix antennas for telemetry, tracking and command applications’, Prog. Electromagn. Res. C, 2015, 60, pp. 125136.
    9. 9)
      • 9. Xu, P., Yan, Z., Yang, X., et al: ‘Miniature folded printed quadrifilar helical antenna with integrated compact feeding network’, Prog. Electromagn. Res. Lett., 2014, 45, pp. 1318.
    10. 10)
      • 10. Slade, B.: ‘The basics of quadrifilar helix antennas’ (Orban Microwave Inc., Orlando, FL, 2015).
    11. 11)
      • 11. Foo, S.: ‘A quadrifilar helical antenna for low elevation GPS applications’, Microw. J., 1998, 41, (1), pp. 178184.
    12. 12)
      • 12. Chu, Q., Lin, W., Lin, W-X., et al: ‘Assembled dual-band broadband quadrifilar helix antennas with compact power divider networks for GNSS application’, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 2013, 61, (2), pp. 516523.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Byun, G., Choo, H., Kim, S.: ‘Design of a dual-band quadrifilar helix antenna using stepped-width arms’, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 2015, 63, (4), pp. 18581862.
    14. 14)
      • 14. Yang, Y., Guo, J., Sun, B., et al: ‘Dual-band slot helix antenna for global positioning satellite applications’, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 2016, 64, (12), pp. 51465152.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Etellisi, E.A., Mansouri, M.A., Filipovic, D.S.: ‘Wideband monostatic simultaneous transmit and receive (STAR) antenna’, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 2016, 64, (1), pp. 615.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Rabemanantsoa, J., Sharaiha, A.: ‘Size reduced multi-band printed quadrifilar helical antenna’, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 2011, 59, (9), pp. 31383143.
    17. 17)
      • 17.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address