Your browser does not support JavaScript!
http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com
1887

access icon free The ant and the elephant: ambient RF harvesting from the uplink

This work investigates the available ambient radio frequency (RF) power density in dynamic, outdoor environments with a specific focus in the uplink. A spectrum survey was carried out around Bristol, UK between 500 MHz and 3 GHz using a handheld spectrum analyser and an omnidirectional broadband discone antenna. Measurements were performed while walking, travelling in a car and on a train. The results are compared with baseline indoors measurements, and as expected, ambient RF power densities in the outdoor environments were significantly higher. Interestingly, in some cases the power contained in the uplink of cellular communication networks is shown to be a better energy source than the downlink. It was found that in a train during rush hour, there is 17 times the mean power density and 45 times the peak power density in the uplink compared with the downlink. This shows that there is scope for ambient energy harvesting in environments with a large density of user equipment. Finally, by accounting for the rectifier efficiency it is estimated that during the train commute between Bristol and Bath in the UK a total of 27.2 mJ of energy could be collected.

References

    1. 1)
      • 3. Patil, K., Prasad, R., Skouby, K.: ‘A survey of worldwide spectrum occupancy measurement campaigns for cognitive radio’. Int. Conf. on Devices and Communications (ICDeCom), Mesra, India, February 2011, pp. 2425.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Watkins, G.: ‘Potential interfering signals in software defined radio’. Sixth IEEE High Frequency Postgraduate Colloquium, Cardiff, UK, September 2001, pp. 4146.
    3. 3)
      • 10. ‘AT&T to Leave 2G Behind – The Wall Street Journal’, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10000872396390443687504577567313211264588, accessed May 2015.
    4. 4)
      • 1. Brown, W.C.: ‘The history of power transmission by radio waves’, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., 1984, 32, (9), pp. 12301242.
    5. 5)
      • 21. Le, T., Mayaram, K., Fiez, T.: ‘Efficient far-field radio frequency energy harvesting for passively powered sensor networks’, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 2008, 43, (5), pp. 12871302.
    6. 6)
      • 12. ETSI TS 125 101 V3.5.0: ‘Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); UE Radio Transmission and Reception (FDD)’, 2000.
    7. 7)
      • 11. ‘Verizon Wireless to sunset 2G and 3G CDMA networks by 2021’, http://www.fiercewireless.com/story/verizon-wireless-sunset-2g-and-3g-cdma-networks-2021/2012-10-10, accessed May 2015.
    8. 8)
      • 16. Gudan, K., Chemishkian, S., Hull, J.J., et al: ‘Feasibility of wireless sensors using ambient 2.4 GHz RF energy’. IEEE Sensors, Taipei, 2012, pp. 14.
    9. 9)
      • 14. Lee, J.H., Raju, A.B., Buehrer, R.M.: ‘Characterisation of wideband code division multiple access uplink transmit power for typical mobile usage patterns’, IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2011, 5, (5), pp. 535544.
    10. 10)
      • 23. Woznowski, P., Fafoutis, X., Song, T., et al: ‘A Multi-modal sensor infrastructure for healthcare in a residential environment’. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Workshop on ICT-enabled Services and Technologies for eHealth and Ambient Assisted Living, London, UK, June 2015.
    11. 11)
      • 13. ETSI TS 136 101: ‘LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception’, 2011.
    12. 12)
      • 18. Popovic, Z., Korhummel, S., Dunbar, S., et al: ‘Scalable RF energy harvesting’, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., 2014, 62, (4), pp. 10461056.
    13. 13)
      • 5. Pinuela, M., Mitcheson, P., Lucyszyn, S.: ‘Ambient RF energy harvesting in urban and semi-urban environments’, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., 2013, 61, (7), pp. 27152726.
    14. 14)
      • 15. ETSI TS 102 932-1 v1.1.1: ‘Railway Telecommunications (RT); ER-GSM frequencies’, 2011.
    15. 15)
      • 19. Peet, B.: ‘The ant and the elephant’ (HMH Books for Young Readers, 1980).
    16. 16)
      • 4. Mimis, K., Gibbins, D., Dumanli, S., et al: ‘Ambient RF energy harvesting trial in domestic settings’, IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2015, 9, (5), pp. 454462.
    17. 17)
      • 6. Olgun, U., Chen, C.C., Volakis, J.L.: ‘Design of an efficient ambient WiFi energy harvesting system’, IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 2012, 6, (11), pp. 12001206.
    18. 18)
      • 17. Ofcom: ‘Mobile Phone Base Station Database’, http://www.sitefinder.ofcom.org.uk/search, accessed May 2015.
    19. 19)
      • 9. ETSI TS/SMG-020505Q: ‘Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Radio transmission and reception’, 1996.
    20. 20)
      • 20. Hemour, S., Zhao, Y., Lorenz, C.H.P., et al: ‘Towards low-power high-efficiency RF and microwave energy harvesting’, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., 2014, 62, (4), pp. 965976.
    21. 21)
      • 22. Ghiglino, C.M.: ‘Ultra-wideband (UWB) rectenna design for electromagnetic energy harvesting’. Masters theses, Universitat Politecnica De Catalunya, Catalunya, Spain, 2010.
    22. 22)
      • 7. Visser, H.J., Reniers, A.C.F., Theeuwes, J.A.C.: ‘Ambient RF energy scavenging: GSM and WLAN power density measurements’. 38th European Microwave Conf., Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2008, pp. 721724.
    23. 23)
      • 8. Guenda, L., Santana, E., Collado, A., et al: ‘Electromagnetic energy harvesting—global information database’, Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol., 2014, 25, (1), pp. 5663.
http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1049/iet-map.2016.0300
Loading

Related content

content/journals/10.1049/iet-map.2016.0300
pub_keyword,iet_inspecKeyword,pub_concept
6
6
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address