Your browser does not support JavaScript!

Extremely low-frequency surface response caused by underground resource

Extremely low-frequency surface response caused by underground resource

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

Electromagnetic (EM) surface responses in the extremely low-frequency (ELF) band caused by possible underground resources are studied. Unlike traditional solutions, the authors apply the geodesic finite-difference time domain method to simulate ELF EM wave propagation in the whole Earth (including the crust)-ionosphere (E-I) system to study these responses. In this way, more rigorous analysis can be achieved by simulating the complex E-I environments, including the inhomogeneous crust and part of the ionosphere. Based on this method, they established a hypothetical model to study the effects of underground objects on received artificial signals. Through simulations, local surface responses and response perturbations caused by underground objects are studied and approximate formulas are obtained for predicting the behaviour of these responses. Finally, potential applications of the method and the results of this work are discussed.


    1. 1)
    2. 2)
      • 1. Zhao, G., Chen, X., Tang, J.: ‘Advanced geo-electromagnetic methods in China’, Prog. Geophys. (CN), 2007, 22, pp. 11711180.
    3. 3)
      • 2. Ellingsrud, S., Eidesmo, T., Westerdahl, H., Kong, F.N.: ‘Electromagnetic methods and apparatus for determining the content of subterranean reservoirs’. United States Patent 6864684, 2005.
    4. 4)
    5. 5)
      • 24. Martinez, A., Byrnes, A.P., Survey, K.G., Avenue, C.: ‘Modeling dielectric-constant values of geologic materials: an aid to ground-penetrating radar data collection and interpretation’, Current Res. Earth Sci., 2001, Bulletin 2, (Part 1), pp. 116.
    6. 6)
    7. 7)
      • 15. Taflove, A., Hagness, S.C.: ‘Computational electrodynamics: the finite-difference time-domain method’ (Artech House, 2005).
    8. 8)
    9. 9)
      • 19. Berenger, J.: ‘An implicit FDTD scheme for the propagation of VLF-LF radio waves in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide’, Comptes Rendus Phys., 2014, 1, pp. 110.
    10. 10)
      • 12. Yuan, Y.: ‘Propagation and noise of SLF and ELF electromagnetic waves (CN)’ (National Defense Industry Press, China, 2011), pp. 1396.
    11. 11)
    12. 12)
      • 6. Velikhov, E.P., Zhamaletdinov, A.A., Shevtsov, A.N., et al: ‘Deep electromagnetic studies with the use of powerful ELF radio installations’, Isvestiya, Phys. Solid Earth, 1998, 34, (8), pp. 615632.
    13. 13)
    14. 14)
    15. 15)
    16. 16)
      • 25. Hermance, J.F.: ‘Electrical conductivity models of the crust and mantle’, in Ahrens, T.J., (Ed.): ‘Global earth physics: a handbook of physical’ (American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 1995), pp. 190205.
    17. 17)
    18. 18)
      • 10. Wait, J.R.: ‘Special issue on extremely low-frequency (ELF) communications’, IEEE Trans. Commun., 1974, COM-22.
    19. 19)
    20. 20)
    21. 21)
    22. 22)
      • 18. Yang, H., Pasko, V.P., Satori, G.: ‘Seasonal variations of global lightning activity extracted from Schumann resonances using a genetic algorithm method’, J. Geophys. Res., 2009, 114, (D 1), pp. 110.
    23. 23)
    24. 24)
    25. 25)
    26. 26)

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address