Your browser does not support JavaScript!

Active cold load MMICs for Ka-, V-, and W-bands

Active cold load MMICs for Ka-, V-, and W-bands

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

Three active cold load circuits operating at millimetre-wave frequencies are presented. The circuits have been manufactured using 100 nm metamorphic high electron mobility transistor technology. On-wafer measurements of noise temperature and match are presented. Measured noise temperatures are 75 K, 141 K, and 170 K at 31.4 GHz, 52 GHz, and 89 GHz, respectively. Measured reflection coefficients are better than −19 dB for all designs.


    1. 1)
      • 2. Dunleavy, L.P., Smith, M.C., Lardizabal, S.M.: ‘Design and characterization of FET based cold/hot noise sources’. IEEE MMT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, 1997, pp. 12931296.
    2. 2)
      • 10. Kangas, V., D'Addio, S., Betto, M., Barre, H., Loiselet, M., Mason, G.: ‘MetOp second generation microwave sounding and microwave imaging missions’. 2012 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conf., 2012. Available at
    3. 3)
      • 5. Bredin, C., Sanson, D., Mohammed, N., et al: ‘23.8 GHz and 36.5 GHz active cold loads for radiometer calibration’. Proc. of ESA/ESTEC Workshop on Microwave Technology and Techniques, 2010, p. 22.
    4. 4)
    5. 5)
      • 7. Ciccognani, W., Giannini, F., Limit, E., Longhi, P.E.: ‘Analysis, design and measurement of active low-noise terminations’. Proc. of 14th Conf. on Microwave Techniques (COMITE), 2008, pp. 14.
    6. 6)
      • 13. Leuther, A., Tessmann, A., Kallfass, I., et al: ‘Metamorphic HEMT technology for low-noise applications’. Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, May 2009, pp. 188191.
    7. 7)
      • 9. Weissbrodt, E., Tessmann, A., Schlechtweg, M., Kalfass, I., Ambacher, O.: ‘Active load modules for W-band radiometer calibration’. Proc. of IEEE Int. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symp. (IGARSS), 2012, pp. 29452948.
    8. 8)
      • 8. Scheeler, R., Popovic, Z.: ‘A 1.4 GHz MMIC active cold noise source’. Technical Digest of IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp. (CSICS), 2013, October 2013, pp. 14.
    9. 9)
    10. 10)
    11. 11)
    12. 12)
    13. 13)
      • 6. Buhles, P.M., Lardizabal, S.M.: ‘Design and characterization of MMIC active cold loads’. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symp. Digest, 2000, pp. 221225.
    14. 14)
      • 3. Sobjaerg, S.S., Skou, N., Barling, J.E.: ‘Measurements on active cold loads for radiometer calibration’, IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., 2009, 47, pp. 31343139.
    15. 15)
      • 15. ‘Noise figure measurement accuracy – Y-factor method’, Agilent Technologies Application Note 57-2, 2014.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address