Comparative study on the economy of hybrid mining trucks for open-pit mining

Comparative study on the economy of hybrid mining trucks for open-pit mining

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Intelligent Transport Systems — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

The mining trucks with heavy loads are widely used in open-pit mines, which are usually under working conditions where the recoverable potential energy accounts for more than 1/3 of the traction energy. Therefore, it is important to study the existing energy recovery technologies suitable for mining trucks. This work presents a comparative study on the economy of a mining truck by integrating four different energy storage systems (ESS): battery, supercapacitor, hydraulic accumulator, and air tank combining with the existing internal combustion engine to form a hybrid mining truck. First, recent applications and features of the four ESSs in vehicles are discussed. Next, the configurations of four types of partial hybrid mining trucks are presented. In addition, this project compares different configurations by the total benefit over 10 years of operation. The compressed-air ESS with full capacity obtained the best benefit under medium and heavy load scenarios, which is more applicable to the actual situations. Therefore, it will be beneficial to turn the conventional electric-driving mining truck into a compressed-air hybrid.


    1. 1)
      • 1. Koellner, W.G., Brown, G.M., Rodríguez, J., et al: ‘Recent advances in mining haul trucks’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2004, 51, (2), pp. 321329.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Sahoo, L.K, Bandyopadhyay, S., Banerjee, R.: ‘Benchmarking energy consumption for dump trucks in mines’, Appl. Energy, 2014, 113, pp. 13821396.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Esfahanian, E.: ‘Hybrid electric haulage trucks for open pit mining’, Autom. Min. Miner. Metal Process., 2013, 46, (16), pp. 104109.
    4. 4)
      • 4. Richter, T.: ‘Hybrid 240 ton off highway haul truck: quarterly technical status report 18’, Technical Report, 2007.
    5. 5)
      • 5. Huang, Y., Khajepour, A., Wang, H.: ‘A predictive power management controller for service vehicle anti-idling systems without a priori information’, Appl. Energy, 2016, 182, pp. 548557.
    6. 6)
      • 6. Herrera, V., Milo, A., Gaztañaga, H., et al: ‘Adaptive energy management strategy and optimal sizing applied on a battery-supercapacitor based tramway’, Appl. Energy, 2016, 169, pp. 831845.
    7. 7)
      • 7. Huang, Y., Khajepour, A., Zhu, T., et al: ‘A supervisory energy-saving controller for a novel anti-idling system of service vehicles’, IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 2016, 22, (2), pp. 11.
    8. 8)
      • 8. Wang, H., Huang, Y., Khajepour, A., et al: ‘Model predictive control-based energy management strategy for a series hybrid electric tracked vehicle’, Appl. Energy, 2016, 182, pp. 105114.
    9. 9)
      • 9. Huang, Y., Fard, S.M., Khazraee, M., et al: ‘An adaptive model predictive controller for a novel battery-powered anti-idling system of service vehicles’, Energy, 2017, 127, pp. 318327.
    10. 10)
      • 10. Huang, Y., Wang, H., Khajepour, A., et al: ‘Model predictive control power management strategies for HEVs: A review’, J. Power Sources, 2017, 341, pp. 91106.
    11. 11)
      • 11. ‘How peugeot-citroen's hybrid air system works: the car that runs on air’. Available at, accessed 5 May 2017.
    12. 12)
      • 12. ‘Hydraulic Hybrid Research’. Available at, accessed 5 May 2017.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Verma, S.S.: ‘Latest developments of a compressed air’, Glob. J. Res. Eng. Automot. Eng., 2013, 13.
    14. 14)
      • 14. Schechter, M.: ‘New cycles for automobile engines’, SAE Technical paper, 1999, 1999-01-0623.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Tai, C., Tsao, T.C., Levin, M.B., et al: ‘Using camless valvetrain for air hybrid optimization’, SAE Paper, 2003, 2003-01-0038.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Fazeli, A., Khajepour, A., Devaud, C.: ‘A novel compression strategy for air hybrid engines’, Appl. Energy, 2011, 88, (9), pp. 29552966.
    17. 17)
      • 17. Tian, H.: ‘Research on traction and braking control of electric drive mining trucks’. PhD. thesis, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 2012.
    18. 18)
      • 18. Saw, L.H., Ye, Y., Tay, A.A.: ‘Integration issues of lithium-ion battery into electric vehicles battery pack’, J. Clean Prod., 2016, 113, pp. 10321045.
    19. 19)
      • 19. Ma, T., Yang, H., Lu, L.: ‘Development of hybrid battery–supercapacitor energy storage for remote area renewable energy systems’, Appl. Energy, 2015, 153, pp. 5662.
    20. 20)
      • 20. Brown, T.L, Atluri, V.P., Schmiedeler, J.P.: ‘A low-cost hybrid drivetrain concept based on compressed air energy storage’, Appl. Energy, 2014, 134, pp. 477489.
    21. 21)
      • 21. ‘Datasheet of axial piston fixed pumps F12’. Available at, accessed 5 May 2017.
    22. 22)
      • 22. Li, X., Chang, S.: ‘Study on characteristics of energy storage element for a new vehicle with electronic control and hydraulic drive’, Chin. J. Mech. Eng., 2007, 18, (10), pp. 12441247.
    23. 23)
      • 23. Product specification of SP-LFP66AHA. Available at, accessed 5 May 2017.
    24. 24)
      • 24. Product specification of VCT1E5D. Available at, accessed 5 May 2017.
    25. 25)
      • 25. Datasheet of LIGHTWEIGHT ACCUMULATORS. Available at, accessed 5 May 2017.
    26. 26)
      • 26. Datasheet of CNG2-G-406-100-20B. Available at, accessed 5 May 2017.
    27. 27)
      • 27. Yi, T., Ma, F., Jin, C., et al: ‘A novel coupled hydro-pneumatic energy storage system for hybrid mining trucks’, Energy, 2018, 143, pp. 704718.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address