VSP-based emission factor calibration and signal timing optimisation for arterial streets

VSP-based emission factor calibration and signal timing optimisation for arterial streets

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Intelligent Transport Systems — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

Vehicle delay and traffic emissions have serious influences on traffic flow operations on an arterial street. The emission factors during green and red are calibrated based on vehicle-specific power (VSP), then three optimisation models are formulated by minimising vehicle delay or traffic emissions and by considering left-turn bays and coordinated signals. The field data from Dalian city of China are used to validate these models. Vehicle compositions include car, medium-size vehicle (MSV) and bus. Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions are estimated. Three coordinated signal control scenarios are proposed and four simulation experiments are carried out. The results indicate that the emission factor during green is greater than that during red for CO, HC or NO x produced by car, MSV or bus in each lane group on an arterial street; the emissions estimated by the motor vehicle emission simulator model are greater than those calculated by the VSP-based model; and the signal control scenario obtained by minimising total emissions performs better than that obtained by minimising total delay or both of them.


    1. 1)
      • 1. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): ‘Carbon pollution from transportation – transportation and climate change’, 2017. Available at, 10 January 2017.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Long, J.C., Gao, Z.Y., Zhao, X.M., et al: ‘Urban traffic jam simulation based on the cell transmission model’, Netw. Spat. Econ., 2011, 11, (1), pp. 4364.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Tiriolo, M., Adacher, L., Cipriani, E.: ‘An urban traffic flow model to capture complex flow interactions among lane groups for signalized intersections’, Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci., 2014, 111, pp. 839848.
    4. 4)
      • 4. Frey, H.C., Rouphail, N.M., Unal, A., et al: ‘Emissions reduction through better traffic management: an empirical evaluation based upon on-road measurements’. Rep. FHWA/NC/2002-001, North Carolina Department of Transportation, USA, 2001.
    5. 5)
      • 5. Frey, H.C., Unal, A., Chen, J.: ‘Recommended strategy for on-board emission data analysis and collection for the new generation model’. North Carolina State University for Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2002.
    6. 6)
      • 6. Kam, W., Liacos, J.W., Schauer, J.J., et al: ‘On-road emission factors of PM pollutants for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) based on urban street driving conditions’, Atmos. Environ., 2012, 61, pp. 378386.
    7. 7)
      • 7. Liu, T.Y., Wang, X.M., Wang, B.G., et al: ‘Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou’, Environ. Res. Lett., 2014, 9, (6), pp. 18, no. 064027.
    8. 8)
      • 8. Midenet, S., Boillot, F., Pierrelée, J.C.: ‘Signalized intersection with real-time adaptive control: on-field assessment of CO2 and pollutant emission reduction’, Transp. Res. D, 2004, 9, (1), pp. 2947.
    9. 9)
      • 9. van Katwijk, R.T.: ‘Using I2V communication to reduce traffic emissions at urban signalized intersections’, Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci., 2012, 48, pp. 23852392.
    10. 10)
      • 10. Mahmod, M., van Arem, B., Pueboobpaphan, R., et al: ‘Reducing local traffic emissions at urban intersection using ITS countermeasures’, IET Intell. Transp. Syst., 2013, 7, (1), pp. 7886.
    11. 11)
      • 11. Lai, J.X., Yu, L., Song, G.H., et al: ‘Development of city-specific driving cycles for transit buses based on VSP distributions: case of Beijing’, J. Transp. Eng., 2013, 139, (7), pp. 749757.
    12. 12)
      • 12. Song, G.H., Zhou, X.X., Yu, L.: ‘Delay correction model for estimating bus emissions at signalized intersections based on vehicle specific power distributions’, Sci. Total Environ., 2015, 514, pp. 108118.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Zhang, S.J., Wu, Y., Liu, H., et al: ‘Real-world fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of urban public buses in Beijing’, Appl. Energy, 2014, 113, pp. 16451655.
    14. 14)
      • 14. Zheng, X., Wu, Y., Jiang, J.K., et al: ‘Characteristics of on-road diesel vehicles: black carbon emissions in Chinese cities based on portable emissions measurement’, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2015, 49, (22), pp. 1349213500.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Sowman, J., Box, S., Wong, A., et al: ‘In-use emissions testing of diesel-driven buses in Southampton: is selective catalytic reduction as effective as fleet operators think?’, IET Intell. Transp. Syst., 2018, 12, (6), pp. 521526.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Gao, Y.F., Hu, H.: ‘Estimation of queued vehicle emissions at signalized intersections based on vehicle specific power approach’, China J. Highw. Transp., 2015, 28, (4), pp. 101108.
    17. 17)
      • 17. Li, X.G., Li, G.Q., Pang, S.S., et al: ‘Signal timing of intersections using integrated optimization of traffic quality, emissions and fuel consumption: a note’, Transp. Res. D, 2004, 9, (5), pp. 401407.
    18. 18)
      • 18. Li, J.Q., Wu, G.Y., Zou, N.: ‘Investigation of the impacts of signal timing on vehicle emissions at an isolated intersection’, Transp. Res. D, 2011, 16, (5), pp. 409414.
    19. 19)
      • 19. Zhang, L., Yin, Y., Chen, S.: ‘Robust signal timing optimization with environmental concerns’, Transp. Res. C, 2013, 29, pp. 5571.
    20. 20)
      • 20. Li, X., Chen, F.: ‘Optimal signal timing of single intersection for traffic emission control’, Appl. Mech. Mater., 2014, 587–589, pp. 21372140.
    21. 21)
      • 21. Osorio, C., Nanduri, K.: ‘Urban transportation emissions mitigation: coupling high-resolution vehicular emissions and traffic models for traffic signal optimization’, Transp. Res. B, 2015, 81, Part 2, pp. 520538.
    22. 22)
      • 22. Tan, W., Li, Z.C., Tan, Z.J.: ‘Modeling the effects of speed limit, acceleration, and deceleration on overall delay and traffic emission at a signalized intersection’, J. Transp. Eng. A, Syst., 2017, 143, (12), pp. 112, no. 04017063.
    23. 23)
      • 23. Fernandes, P., Coelho, M.C., Rouphail, N.M.: ‘Assessing the impact of closely-spaced intersections on traffic operations and pollutant emissions on a corridor level’, Transp. Res. D, Transp. Environ., 2017, 54, pp. 304320.
    24. 24)
      • 24. Tobin, J.R., McCoy, P.T.: ‘Effect of left-turn bays at signalized intersections on fuel consumption’, Transp. Res. Rec., 1983, 901, pp. 4749.
    25. 25)
      • 25. Dvorak, D.V., McCoy, P.T.: ‘Effect of left-turn bays on fuel consumption on uncontrolled approaches to stop-sign-controlled intersections’, Transp. Res. Rec., 1983, 901, pp. 5053.
    26. 26)
      • 26. Yao, R.H., Wang, X.Y., Xu, H.F., et al: ‘Emission factor calibration and signal timing optimization for isolated intersections’, IET Intell. Transp. Syst., 2018, 12, (2), pp. 158167.
    27. 27)
      • 27. Transportation Research Board (TRB): ‘Highway capacity manual 2010’ (Washington, DC, 2010, 5th edn).
    28. 28)
      • 28. Lu, K., Xu, J.: ‘Offset model for arterial road coordinate control and its optimization method’, China J. Highw. Transp., 2008, 21, (1), pp. 8388.
    29. 29)
      • 29. Huai, T., Durbin, T.D., Younglove, T., et al: ‘Vehicle specific power approach to estimating on-road NH3 emissions from light-duty vehicles’, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005, 39, pp. 95959600.
    30. 30)
      • 30. Guo, D., Gao, S., Zou, G., et al: ‘Quantitative evaluation method of vehicle emission in urban region’, J. Traffic Transp. Eng., 2012, 12, (1), pp. 7278.
    31. 31)
      • 31. Yao, R.H., Zhang, H.M.: ‘Optimal allocation of lane space and green splits of isolated signalized intersections with short left-turn lanes’, J. Transp. Eng., 2013, 139, (7), pp. 667677.
    32. 32)
      • 32. Roess, R.P., Prassas, E.S., McShane, W.R.: ‘Traffic engineering’ (China Machine Press, Beijing, China, 2008, 3rd edn).
    33. 33)
      • 33. Road and Transportation Research Association (RTRA): ‘Guidelines for traffic signals (RiLSA)’ (Steering Committee for Traffic Control and Traffic Safety, Cologne, German, 2003).
    34. 34)
      • 34. Yao, R.H.: ‘Settings of short left-turn lane and signal phase sequence for isolated signalized intersections’, Transport, 2016, 31, (4), pp. 416426.
    35. 35)
      • 35. Tian, Z.Z., Mangal, V., Liu, H.C.: ‘Effectiveness of lead-lag phasing on progression bandwidth’, Transp. Res. Rec., 2008, 2080, pp. 2227.
    36. 36)
      • 36. Ma, N., Shao, C.F., Zhao, Y.: ‘Influence factors of coordination control system in signalized intersections’, J. Harbin Inst. Technol., 2011, 43, (6), pp. 112117.
    37. 37)
      • 37. Li, H.Q., Lu, H.P., Liu, Q.: ‘Research on transition algorithms for timing plans of arterial time in-day traffic control’, J. Wuhan Univ. Technol. (Transp. Sci. Eng.), 2008, 32, (5), pp. 779781, 852.
    38. 38)
      • 38. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): ‘Using MOVES2014 in project-level carbon monoxide analyses’. Transportation and Climate Division Office of Transportation and Air Quality, EPA Rep. EPA-420-B-15-028, 2015.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address