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Improved guess-and-determine attack on TRIVIUM

Improved guess-and-determine attack on TRIVIUM

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TRIVIUM is a stream cipher of the finalists by eSTREAM project and has been accepted as ISO standard. Although the design has a simple structure, no attack on its full cipher has been found yet. In this study, based on Maximov and Biryukov's attack, the authors present an improved guess-and-determine attack on TRIVIUM. Analysis details are provided corresponding to TRIVIUM specifications for better comprehension, and errors that may lead to higher attack complexity in the original attack are pointed and corrected. They further bring in some techniques like backward-clock equation collection, quadratic equations, linear transformation to improve the attack. In addition, they integrate with time-memory-data tradeoffs from the framework, based on the analysis of the coefficient matrices form of derived linear equation systems on the internal state. In this way, better use of the imposed quadratic conditions can be made, which leads to reduced attack complexity by filtering out the impossible keystreams before solving the equation systems. Their attack offers more parameter selections, and gives several borderline results compared with the key exhaustive search. The new attack behaves better in the original case. It also verifies the necessity of data requirement imposed on TRIVIUM, which is questioned in TRIVIUM specifications.

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