## Novel application of integral-tilt-derivative controller for performance evaluation of load frequency control of interconnected power system

The primary aim of load frequency control (LFC) is to provide a good quality of electrical power to the consumers within a prescribed limit of frequency and scheduled tie-line power deviation. To achieve this objective, LFC needs highly efficient and intelligent control mechanism. Subsequently, here, a novel integral-tilt-derivative (I-TD) controller, fine-tuned by a powerful heuristic optimisation technique [called as water cycle algorithm (WCA)], is proposed for the LFC study of a two-area interconnected thermal-hydro-nuclear generating units. The studied system involves non-linearities like generation rate constraints, governor dead band, and boiler dynamics. To explore the effectiveness of the proposed controller, dynamic responses of the studied system, as obtained using I-TD controller, are compared to those yielded by other controllers such as tilt-integral-derivative and conventional proportional–integral–derivative controllers. The investigation demonstrates that the proposed I-TD controller delivers better performance in comparison to the other counterparts. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is carried out to show robustness of the WCA tuned proposed I-TD controller by varying system parameters and loading condition. It is perceived that the proposed I-TD controller is robust and offers better transient response under varying operating conditions.