Renewable energy sources for complete optimal power system black-start restoration

Renewable energy sources for complete optimal power system black-start restoration

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Integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) may increase the risk of power system blackouts because of the uncertainty nature of their output power. In the meantime, RESs have relatively short starting time when compared with non-black start (BS) generating units. For this reason, RES needs to participate in power system restoration after blackouts. For a complete power system restoration, three stages must be completed. These stages are: generation restoration, transmission system restoration and load pick up. To achieve a faster restoration process, an optimal schedule for the BS units to crank the non-BS (NBS) units is required with optimal transmission path selection. In addition, to maintain the stability of the system and satisfy the system operational constraints, an optimal load pick-up sequence is required. In this study, the firefly algorithm (FA) is used to find the optimal final sequence of NBS units restoration, transmission paths and load pick-up sequence with and without the aid of RES in the system. The objective is to minimise the overall restoration time and the unserved load which maximise the energy capability and improve the sustainability of the system. The proposed algorithm is applied successfully to the IEEE 39-bus system.


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