Wavelet-based protection strategy for DC faults in multi-terminal VSC HVDC systems

Wavelet-based protection strategy for DC faults in multi-terminal VSC HVDC systems

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

A new protection algorithm for DC line faults in multi-terminal high voltage DC (MTDC) systems is proposed in this study. A four-terminal MTDC model is used to investigate fault behaviour and detection using the simulation program PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results are post-processed using Matlab. The fault clearing must be done very rapidly, to limit the effect of the fault on neighbouring DC lines because of the rapid increase in DC current. However, before clearing the line, the fault location must be detected as soon as possible. A rapid fault location detection algorithm is therefore needed, preferably without communication. The protection algorithm proposed in this study uses wavelet analysis to detect the fault location based on local measurements. The protection algorithm consists of three independent fault criteria, of which two use wavelet analysis. The third criterion is based on a detection method in the time domain. The latter is an additional detection method independent of wavelet analysis. Using a two out of three selection criteria results in an increased reliability of the whole protection algorithm. The final objective is to implement a protection algorithm which allows to detect a DC fault within 1 ms without using communication between the participating converter stations.


    1. 1)
      • Pan, J., Nuqui, R., Srivastava, K., Jonsson, T., Holmberg, P., Hafner, Y.: `AC grid with embedded VSC-HVDC for secure and efficient power delivery', IEEE Energy2030, November 2008, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    2. 2)
      • PSCAD®/EMTDC™, Manitoba HVDC research centre. Available:
    3. 3)
      • Naidoo, D., Ijumba, N.M.: `HVDC line protection for the proposed future HVDC systems', Int. Conf. on Power System Technology – POWERCON 2004, November 2004, p. 1327–1332.
    4. 4)
    5. 5)
      • Tang, L., Ooi, B.-T.: `Protection of VSC-multi-terminal HVDC against DC faults', IEEE 33rd Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conf., 2002, PESC'02, 2002, 2, p. 719–724.
    6. 6)
      • Tang, L.: `Control and protection of multi-terminal DC transmission systems based on voltage-source converters', January 2003, PhD, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    7. 7)
    8. 8)
    9. 9)
    10. 10)
      • S. Mallat . (1998) A wavelet tour of signal processing.
    11. 11)
      • G. Nason , B. Silverman . (1995) The stationary wavelet transform and some statistical applications, Lecture Notes in Statistics.
    12. 12)
    13. 13)
    14. 14)
    15. 15)
    16. 16)
      • De Kerf, K.: `Protection strategies for DC faults in multi-terminal VSC HVDC systems', May 2009, Master's, K.U. Leuven, Belgium.
    17. 17)
    18. 18)
      • Wikipedia. Triple modular redundancy. Available:
    19. 19)
      • G. Deconinck . (2008) Industriële regeltechniek – H04D0 (in Dutch).
    20. 20)
      • Bjorklund, P.E., Srivastava, K., Quaintance, W.: `Hvdc light®modeling for dynamic performance analysis', IEEE PES Power Systems Conf. and Exposition, 2006, PSCE'06 October, 29 2006–November 1 2006, pp. 871–876. Available at:
    21. 21)
      • Bjorklund, P.-E., Pan, J., Yue, C., Srivastava, K.: `A new approach for modeling complex power system components in different simulation tools', Power System Computation Conf. (PSCC), 2008, Glasgow, UK, Available at:

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address