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access icon free Real-time control algorithm for minimising energy consumption in parallel hybrid electric vehicles

In this work, a real-time energy management problem for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed. The considered powertrain is built from a commercial HEV model. First, a non-linear optimal control problem under model predictive control scheme is formulated. The designed controller aims to generate the optimal power split and gear ratio schedule with respect to minimise the energy consumption of fuel and electricity. Moreover, the multiple shooting algorithm is introduced to decouple the dynamic constraints with the ability of avoiding the strong non-linearity while solving the optimisation problem. After that the optimisation problem is solved using sequential quadratic programming solver. Then, to evaluate the performance of the proposed real-time optimisation strategy on different traffic scenarios, the controller is applied to an adaptive cruise control (ACC) under connected environment. In this case, a solution of ACC with consideration of minimising energy consumption and maintaining string stability is provided. Finally, the proposed controller can be implemented in the traffic-in-the-loop platform without the knowledge of the predefined driving route. Simulations reveal that the proposed real-time control scheme shows great optimisation performance under the designed scenarios.

http://iet.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1049/iet-est.2020.0052
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content/journals/10.1049/iet-est.2020.0052
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