Performance evaluation of a medium size diesel vehicle equipped with different electric-turbo compound layouts

Performance evaluation of a medium size diesel vehicle equipped with different electric-turbo compound layouts

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

One of the key strategies to reduce fuel consumption and emissions is given by engine downsizing, together with turbocharging. Under this aspect, the possibility to couple an electric drive to the turbocharger to recover the residual energy of the exhaust gases is becoming more and more attractive. However, additional energy coming from an electric turbo compound (ETC) application has to be managed by the vehicle powertrain through a proper energy management strategy. This study shows the numerical results of a research programme under way focused on the comparison of the benefits resulting from the application of two ETC configurations to a medium size vehicle equipped with a small four cylinders turbocharged diesel engine (1561 cm3). Starting from the experimental maps of the turbine and compressor, the complete engine model was created using a commercial one-dimension code. The numerical activity then moved to the whole vehicle modelling. Engine results have been used to properly define a powertrain architecture and energy management strategy in order to maximise the benefits coming from the single-ETC or the dual-ETC solution. Finally, vehicle performance and energy flows have been analysed in different real driving conditions and compared to the original vehicle without ETC.


    1. 1)
      • 1. Aghaalin, A., Ångström, H.-E.: ‘A review of turbocompounding as a waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines’, Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 2015, 49, pp. 813824.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Mohd Noor, A., Che Puteh, R., Rajoo, S.: ‘Waste heat recovery technologies in turbocharged automotive engine – A review’, J. Mod. Sci. Technol, 2014, 2, (1), pp. 108119.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Saidur, R., Rezaei, M., Muzammil, W.K., et al: ‘Technologies to recover exhaust heat from internal combustion engines’, Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 2012, 16, pp. 56495659.
    4. 4)
      • 4. Zhao, R., Li, W., Zhuge, W., et al: ‘Numerical study on steam injection in a turbocompound diesel engine for waste heat recovery’, Appl. Energy, 2017, 185, pp. 506518.
    5. 5)
      • 5. Callahan, T.J., Branyon, D.P., Forster, A.C., et al: ‘Effectiveness of mechanical turbo compounding in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine’, Int. J. Automot. Eng., 2012, 3, pp. 6973.
    6. 6)
      • 6. Boretti, A.: ‘Conversion of a heavy duty truck diesel engine with an innovative power turbine connected to the crankshaft through a continuously variable transmission to operate compression ignition dual fuel diesel-LPG’, Fuel Process. Technol., 2013, 113, pp. 97108.
    7. 7)
      • 7. Zhao, R., Zhuge, W., Zhang, Y., et al: ‘Parametric study of power turbine for diesel engine waste heat recovery’, Appl. Therm. Eng., 2014, 67, pp. 308319.
    8. 8)
      • 8. Zhao, R., Zhuge, W., Zhang, Y., et al: ‘Study of two-stage turbine characteristic and its influence on turbo-compound engine performance’, Energy Convers. Manage., 2015, 95, pp. 414423.
    9. 9)
      • 9. Katsanos, C.O., Hountalas, D.T., Zannis, T.C.: ‘Simulation of a heavy-duty diesel engine with electrical turbocompounding system using operating charts for turbocharger components and power turbine’, Energy Convers. Manage., 2013, 76, pp. 712724.
    10. 10)
      • 10. Briggs, I., McCullough, G., Spence, S., et al: ‘Whole-vehicle modelling of exhaust energy recovery on a diesel-electric hybrid bus’, Energy, 2014, 65, pp. 172181.
    11. 11)
      • 11. Cipollone, R., Di Battista, D., Gualtieri, A.: ‘Turbo compound systems to recover energy in ICE’, Int. J.Eng. Innovative Technol. (IJEIT), 2013, 3, (6), pp. 249257.
    12. 12)
      • 12. He, G., Xie, H.: ‘Fuel saving potential of different turbo-compounding systems under steady and driving cycles’, SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0878, 2015.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Algarin, M.: ‘Controlling an electric turbo compound system for exhaust gas energy recovery in a diesel engine’. IEEE Int. Conf. on ‘Electro Information Technology’, 22–25 May 2005.
    14. 14)
      • 14. Millo, F., Mallamo, F., Pautasso, E., et al: ‘The potential of electric exhaust gas turbocharging for HD diesel engines’, SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0437, 2006.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Nicola Terdich, N., Martinez-Botas, R.: ‘Experimental efficiency characterization of an electrically assisted turbocharger’, SAE Paper 2013-24-0122, 2013.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Grönman, A., Sallinen, P., Honkatukia, J., et al: ‘Design and experiments of two-stage intercooled electrically assisted turbocharger’, Energy Convers. Manage., 2016, 111, pp. 115124.
    17. 17)
      • 17. Arsie, I., Cricchio, A., Pianese, C., et al: ‘Evaluation of CO2 reduction in SI engines with electric turbo-compound by dynamic powertrain modelling’, Sci. Direct IFAC-Papers On Line, 2015, 48-15, pp. 93100.
    18. 18)
      • 18. Ryder, O., Stutter, H., Jaeger, L.: ‘The design and testing of an electrically assisted turbocharger for heavy duty diesel engines’. 8th Int. Conf. Turbochargers Turbocharging, 2006, pp. 157166.
    19. 19)
      • 19. Rinaldi, A., Merlo, A.M., Hervás-Blasco, E., et al: ‘GASTONE – development of a new powertrain concept based on the integration of electric generation, energy recovery and storage, Transport. Res. Proc.2016, 14, pp. 10611070.
    20. 20)
      • 20. Newman, P., Luard, N., Jarvis, S., et al: ‘Electrical supercharging for future diesel powertrain applications’. 11th Int. Conf. Turbochargers and Turbocharging, 2014, pp. 207216.
    21. 21)
      • 21. Frigo, S., Pasini, G., Marelli, S., et al: ‘Numerical evaluation of an electric turbo compound for SI engines’, SAE Technical Paper 2014-32-0013, 2014.
    22. 22)
      • 22. Pasini, G., Frigo, S., Marelli, S.: ‘Numerical comparison of an electric turbo compound applied to a SI and a CI engine’. Proc. ASME 2015 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conf. ICEF2015, Houston, TX, USA, 8–11 November 2015.
    23. 23)
      • 23. Pasini, G., Lutzemberger, G., Frigo, S., et al: ‘Evaluation of an electric turbo compound system for SI engines: a numerical approach’, Appl. Energy, 2016, 162, pp. 527540.
    24. 24)
      • 24. Pasini, G., Frigo, S., Antonelli, M.: ‘Electric turbo compounding applied to a CI engine: a numerical evaluation of different layouts’. Proc. ASME 2016 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conf. ICEF2016, Greenville, SC, USA, 9–12 October 2016.
    25. 25)
      • 25. AVL BOOST v2011.2 Official Examples Library.
    26. 26)
      • 26. Marelli, S., Carraro, C., Marmorato, G., et al: ‘Experimental analysis on steady flow performance under unstable operating conditions and on surge limit of a turbocharger compressor’, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci, 2014, 53, pp. 154160, doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2013.11.025.
    27. 27)
      • 27. Marelli, S., Capobianco, M.: ‘Experimental Investigation under unsteady flow conditions on turbocharger compressors for automotive gasoline engines’. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Turbochargers and Turbocharging, 2012, pp. 219229, ISBN: 9780857092090.
    28. 28)
      • 28. Woschni, G.: ‘A universally applicable equation for the instantaneous heat transfer coefficient in internal combustion engines’, SAE 6700931, 1967.
    29. 29)
      • 29. Bayindir, K.M., Gözüküçük, M.A., Teke, A.: ‘A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicle: powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units’, Energy Convers. Manage., 2011, 52, pp. 13051313.
    30. 30)
      • 30. Chau, K.T., Wong, Y.S.: ‘Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles’, Energy Convers. Manage., 2002, 43, pp. 19531968.
    31. 31)
      • 31. Modelon official site. Available at
    32. 32)
      • 32. Modelica official site, Available at
    33. 33)
      • 33. Schweiger, C., Dempsey, M., Otter, M.: ‘The powertrain library: new concepts and new fields of application’. 4th Int. Modelica Conf., Hamburg, 2005.
    34. 34)
      • 34. Pelchen, C., Schweiger, C., Otter, M.: ‘Modeling and simulating the efficiency of gearboxes and of planetary gearboxes’. 2nd Int. Modelica Conf., Oberpfaffenhofen, 2002.
    35. 35)
      • 35. Schlegel, C., Bross, M., Beater, P.: ‘HIL-simulation of the hydraulics and mechanics of an automatic gearbox’. 2nd Int. Modelica Conf., Oberpfaffenhofen, 2002.
    36. 36)
      • 36. Tiller, B., Bowles, P., Elmqvist, H., et al: ‘Detailed vehicle powertrain modelling in modelica’. Modelica Workshop, Lund, 2000.
    37. 37)
      • 37. Ceraolo, M.: ‘A new modelica electric and hybrid power trains library’. 11th Modelica Conf., Paris, 21–23 September 2015.
    38. 38)
      • 38. Pfister, P., Perriad, Y.: ‘Very-high-speed slotless permanent-magnet motors: analytical modeling, optimization, design, and torque measurement methods’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2010, 57, (1), pp. 296303.
    39. 39)
      • 39. Ceraolo, M., Huria, T., Lutzemberger, G.: ‘Experimentally-determined models for high-power lithium batteries’, SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper, 2011-01-1365,
    40. 40)
      • 40. Huria, T., Ludovici, G., Lutzemberger, G.: ‘State of charge estimation of high power lithium iron phospate cells’, J. Power Source, 2014, 249, pp. 92102, doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.079.
    41. 41)
      • 41. Kouroussis, G., Dehombreux, P., Verlinden, O.: ‘Vehicle and powertrain dynamics analysis with an automatic gearbox’, Mech. Mach. Theory, 2015, 83, pp. 109124.
    42. 42)
      • 42. Modelica Libraries official site. Available at
    43. 43)
      • 43. Simpkin, R., D'Ambrosio, C., Simonsson, J., et al: ‘Energy efficient vehicles for road transport’. Transport Research Arena – Europe 2012, Athens (Greece), 23–26 April 2012.
    44. 44)
      • 44. Salmasi, F.R.: ‘Control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles: evolution, classification, comparison, and future trends’, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 2007, 56, (5), pp. 23932404.
    45. 45)
      • 45. Lv, C., Zhang, J., Li, Y., et al: ‘Mechanism analysis and evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electrified vehicles’, Energy Convers. Manage., 2015, 92, pp. 469482.
    46. 46)
      • 46. BMW official site: Available at
    47. 47)
      • 47. Common Artemis Driving Cycle (CADC) site. Available at
    48. 48)
      • 48. Kokam documentation. Available at
    49. 49)
      • 49. Ceraolo, M., Lutzemberger, G., Marracci, M.: ‘High power Lithium batteries usage in hybrid vehicles’. Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conf. (VPPC), 1–3 September 2010.
    50. 50)
      • 50. Lutzemberger, G.: ‘Cycle life evaluation of lithium cells subjected to micro-cycles’. Int. Youth Conf. Energy (IYCE), 27–30 May 2015.
    51. 51)
      • 51. Ceraolo, M., Lutzemberger, G., Poli, D.: ‘Aging evaluation of high power lithium cells subjected micro-cycles’, J. Energy Storage, 2016, 6, pp. 116124.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address