Your browser does not support JavaScript!

Evaluation and tuning of robust PID controllers

Evaluation and tuning of robust PID controllers

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Control Theory & Applications — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

Based on a general controller evaluation method, taking both performance and robustness in different frequency regions into account, an analytical PID design method is presented. It is related to the well known and often used lambda tuning approach, which is based on internal model control (IMC) for a specific second-order non-minimum phase plant model. The analytical method introduced in this paper includes two tuning parameters, one that guarantees a specified stability margin for the given model, and one that is also able to adjust the control activity to a desired level. The suggested method, called robust IMC, gives the user the important freedom to control both mid- and high-frequency robustness. An extended evaluation procedure also illustrates how efficiently PI and PID controllers including a Smith predictor (SP) can control time delayed plants. More specifically, it is shown to be more profitable to provide a PI controller with derivative action than with a SP for plants with long time delays.


    1. 1)
    2. 2)
    3. 3)
    4. 4)
      • Leva, A., Colombo, A.M.: `IMC-based synthesis of the feedback block of ISA-PID regulators', Preprints European Control Conf., 2001, Porto, Portugal, p. 196–201.
    5. 5)
      • Kristiansson, B., Lennartson, B.: `Robust PI and PID controllers including Smith predictor structure', Proc American Control Conf. ‘01, 2001, Arlington, USA, 3, p. 2197–2202.
    6. 6)
      • J.G. Ziegler , N.B. Nichols . Optimum settings for automatic controllers. Trans. ASME , 11 , 759 - 768
    7. 7)
      • M. Morari , E. Zafirou . (1989) Robust process control.
    8. 8)
      • Lennartson, B., Kristiansson, B.: `Pass band and high frequency robustness for PID control', Proc. 36th Conf. Decision and Control, December 1997, San Diego, USA, 3, p. 2666–2671.
    9. 9)
      • Y.G. Wang , H.H. Shao . Optimal tuning for PI controller. Automatica , 147 - 152
    10. 10)
    11. 11)
    12. 12)
      • R.J. Mantz , E.J. Tacconi . Complementary rules to Ziegler and Nichols rules for regulating and tracking controller. Int. J. Control , 1465 - 1471
    13. 13)
      • K.J. Aström , T. Hägglund . (1995) PID controllers: theory, design and tuning.
    14. 14)
    15. 15)
      • O.J.M. Smith . Closer control of loops with dead time. Chem. Eng. Prog. , 217 - 219
    16. 16)
      • Pecharroman, R.R., Pagola, F.L.: `Control design for PID controllers auto-tuning based on improved identification', PID’00. IFAC Workshop of Digital Control. Past, present and future of PID Control, April 2000, Terrassa, Spain, p. 89–94.
    17. 17)
      • Lelic, M., Gajic, Z.: `A reference guide to PID controllers in the nineties', PID’00. IFAC Workshop of Digital Control. Past, present and Future of PID Control, April 2000, Terrassa, Spain, p. 73–82.
    18. 18)
      • F.G. Shinskey . (1996) Process control systems, application, design and tuning.
    19. 19)
      • Yamamoto, S., Hashimoto, I.: `Present status and future needs: the view from Japanese industry', Chemical Process Control – CPCIV. Proc. 4th Inter. Conf. Chemical Process Control, 1991, TX.
    20. 20)
      • Persson, P.: `Towards autonomous PID control', 1992, PhD, Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Automatic Control, Lund, Sweden.
    21. 21)
    22. 22)
      • Skogestad, S.: `Probably the best simple PID tunung rules in the world', AIChE Annual Meeting, November 2001, Reno, Nevada, USA, paper 276h.
    23. 23)
      • Åström, K.J., Hägglund, T.: `A frequency domain method for automatic tuning of simple feedback loops', Proc. 23rd IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, December 1984, Las Vegas, NV, USA, p. 299–304.
    24. 24)
      • O'Dwyer, A., Ringwood, J.V.: `The control of a process with time delay by using a modified Smith predictor compensator', Conf. DSP and Control, 1996, Dublin, Ireland, Trinity College.
    25. 25)
      • Åström, K.J., Hägglund, T.: `New tuning methods for PID controllers', Proc. 3rd European Control Conf., September 1995, Rome, Italy, p. 2456–2462.
    26. 26)
    27. 27)
    28. 28)
    29. 29)
      • Åström, K.J., Hägglund, T.: `The future of PID control', PID’00. IFAC Workshop of Digital Control. Past, Present and Future of PID Control, April 2000, Terrassa, Spain, p. 19–30.
    30. 30)
    31. 31)
      • Mellquist, M., Crisafulli, S., Macleod, I.M.: `Derivative filtering issues for industrial PID-controllers', Proc. IEAust Control -97 Conf., 1997, Sydney, Australia, p. 486–491.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address