Your browser does not support JavaScript!

Power line communications under Rayleigh fading and Nakagami noise: novel insights on the MIMO and multi-hop techniques

Power line communications under Rayleigh fading and Nakagami noise: novel insights on the MIMO and multi-hop techniques

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for $120.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Communications — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

This work targets a comprehensive understanding of the impact of the serial-relaying and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) fading mitigation techniques on the performance of indoor power line communication (PLC) systems. While these techniques were studied extensively under additive Gaussian noise, we aim at highlighting the implications of Nakagami-like noise on the achievable performance levels. The author derive approximate closed-form expressions for the bit error rate (BER) under Rayleigh fading and Nakagami-m background noise where the obtained approximations are very close to the exact BERs. The derived expressions are useful for evaluating the achievable diversity orders and for relating the BER to the main parameters of the PLC system in a direct and intuitive way. In this context, we analytically prove that MIMO doubles the diversity order with different combining schemes while the diversity order of a system under Nakagami-like noise is only half the diversity order that would have been obtained under Gaussian noise. The author also shows that multi-hop relaying does not enhance the diversity order.


    1. 1)
      • 6. Kim, Y., Kim, Y.-H., Oh, H.-M., et al: ‘BER performance of binary transmitted signal for power line communication under Nakagami-like background noise’. Int. Conf. on Smart Grids, Green Communications and IT Energy-aware Technologies, 2011, pp. 126129.
    2. 2)
      • 8. Mathur, A., Bhatnagar, M.R., , and Panigrahi, B.: ‘Performance evaluation of PLC with log-normal channel gain over Nakagami-m additive background noise’. IEEE Int. Conf. on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2015, to appear.
    3. 3)
      • 27. Bhatnagar, M.R., Mallik, R.K., Tirkkonen, O.: ‘Performance evaluation of best-path selection in a multihop decode-and-forward cooperative system’, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 2016, 65, (4), pp. 27222728.
    4. 4)
      • 9. Mathur, A., Bhatnagar, M.R., Panigrahi, B.: ‘Performance evaluation of PLC under the combined effect of background and impulsive noises’, IEEE Commun. Lett., 2015, 19, (7), pp. 11171120.
    5. 5)
      • 14. Tan, B., Thompson, J.S.: ‘Powerline communications channel modelling methodology based on statistical features’. [Online]. Available:
    6. 6)
      • 24. Dubey, A., Mallik, R.K.: ‘PLC system performance with AF relaying’, IEEE Trans. Commun., 2015, 63, (6), pp. 23372345.
    7. 7)
      • 23. Cheng, X., Cao, R., Yang, L.: ‘Relay-aided amplify-and-forward powerline communications’, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2013, 4, (1), pp. 265272.
    8. 8)
      • 19. Quan, Z., Ribeiro, M.V.: ‘A low cost STBC–OFDM system with improved reliability for power line communications’. IEEE Int. Symp. on PLC and its Applications, 2011, pp. 261266.
    9. 9)
      • 17. Hoque, K.R., Debiasi, L., De-Natale, F.G.B.: ‘Performance analysis of MC-CDMA power line communication system’. IEEE Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communication Networks, 2007, pp. 15.
    10. 10)
      • 2. Balakirsky, V.B., Vinck, A.J.H.: ‘Potential limits on power-line communication over impulsive noise channels’. IEEE Int. Symp. on PLC and its applications, March 2003, pp. 3236.
    11. 11)
      • 13. Liu, L., Cheng, T., Yanan, L.: ‘Analysis and modeling of multipath for indoor power line channel’. IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Communication Technologies, 2008, pp. 19661969.
    12. 12)
      • 28. Hooijen, O.: ‘A channel model for the residential power circuit used as a digital communications medium’, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., 1998, 40, (4), pp. 13311336.
    13. 13)
      • 10. Chandra, A., Gupta, A., Mallick, D., et al: ‘Performance of BFSK over a PLC channel corrupted with background Nakagami noise’. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communication Systems, 2010, pp. 730734.
    14. 14)
      • 12. Chattopadhyay, A., Sharma, K., Chandra, A.: ‘Error performance of RS coded binary FSK in PLC channels with Nakagami and impulsive noise’. IEEE Int. Symp. on PLC and its Applications, 2014, pp. 184189.
    15. 15)
      • 15. Lampe, L., Vinck, A.J.H.: ‘Cooperative multihop power line communications’. IEEE Int. Symp. on PLC and its Applications, 2012, pp. 16.
    16. 16)
      • 16. Mathur, A., Bhatnagar, M.R., Panigrahi, B.: ‘PLC performance analysis over Rayleigh fading channel under Nakagami-m additive noise’, IEEE Commun. Lett., 2014, 18, (12), pp. 21012104.
    17. 17)
      • 7. Mathur, A., Bhatnagar, M.R.: ‘PLC performance analysis assuming BPSK modulation over Nakagami-m additive noise’, IEEE Commun. Lett., 2014, 18, (6), pp. 909912.
    18. 18)
      • 26. Gradshteyn, I., Ryzhik, I.: ‘Table of integrals series and products’ (6th edn., Academic Press, USA, 2000).
    19. 19)
      • 1. Ma, Y.H., So, P.L., Gunawan, E.: ‘Performance analysis of OFDM systems for broadband power line communications under impulsive noise and multipath effects’, IEEE Trans. Power Del., 2005, 20, (2), pp. 647682.
    20. 20)
      • 18. Adebisi, B., Ali, S., Honary, B.: ‘Space-frequency and space-time-frequency M3FSK for indoor multiwire communications’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2009, 24, (4), pp. 23612367.
    21. 21)
      • 22. Hao, L., Guo, J.: ‘A MIMO-OFDM scheme over coupled multi-conductor power-line communication channel’. IEEE Int. Symp. on PLC and its Applications, 2007, pp. 198203.
    22. 22)
      • 21. de Campos, F., Machado, R., Ribeiro, M.V., et al: ‘MISO single-carrier system with feedback channel information for narrowband PLC applications’. IEEE Int. Symp. on PLC and its Applications, 2009, pp. 301306.
    23. 23)
      • 3. Meng, H., Guan, Y., Chen, S.: ‘Modeling and analysis of noise effects on broadband power line communications’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2005, 20, (2), pp. 630637.
    24. 24)
      • 4. Kim, Y., Choi, S., Oh, H.-M.: ‘Closed-form expression of Nakagami-like background noise in power-line channel’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2008, 23, (3), pp. 14101412.
    25. 25)
      • 11. Chandra, A., Hazarika, R.: ‘A comparative study of MFSK and CDMA for power line communication with background Nakagami noise’. IEEE Symp. on Industrial Electronics & Applications, 2010, pp. 195200.
    26. 26)
      • 20. Yoo, J., Choe, S.: ‘MIMO-OFDM based indoor power line communication using spatial diversity coding and MRC schemes’. IEEE Asia–Pacific Conf. on Communications, 2012, pp. 635640.
    27. 27)
      • 5. Abou-Rjeily, C.: ‘Performance analysis of power line communication systems with diversity combining under correlated lognormal fading and Nakagami noise’, IET Commun., 2017, 11, (3), pp. 405413.
    28. 28)
      • 25. Dubey, A., Mallik, R.K., Schober, R.: ‘Performance analysis of a multi-hop power line communication system over log-normal fading in presence of impulsive noise’, IET Commun., 2015, 9, (1), pp. 19.

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address