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CMOS gyrator-C active transformers

CMOS gyrator-C active transformers

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A systematic approach for synthesising gyrator-C active transformers using MOS transistors is presented. The topology of gyrator-C active inductors and their characteristics are briefly reviewed first. This is followed by the development of ideal gyrator-C active transformers, where only the capacitor loads of the transconductors synthesising active transformers are considered. The self and mutual inductances of both the primary and secondary windings of active transformers are investigated in detailed. Non-ideal gyrator-C active transformers are developed with the consideration of both the resistance and capacitance loads of transconductors. The intrinsic relation between the self and mutual inductances is derived. The configuration of gyrator-C active transformers with multiple primary and secondary windings is also developed. The proposed active transformers offer large and tunable self and mutual inductances with virtually no silicon area requirement. Several practical implementations of the proposed active transformers have been realised in TSMC-0.18 µm 1.8 V CMOS technology and analysed using SpectreRF with BSIM3v3 device models. Simulation results on voltage transfer characteristics, self and mutual inductances, quality factors, stability, the effect of process variations, and noise are presented. The application of the proposed active transformers is exemplified using a 1.6 GHz active transformer quadrature oscillator.

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