Passive voltage shifters for analogue signaling

Passive voltage shifters for analogue signaling

For access to this article, please select a purchase option:

Buy article PDF
(plus tax if applicable)
Buy Knowledge Pack
10 articles for £75.00
(plus taxes if applicable)

IET members benefit from discounts to all IET publications and free access to E&T Magazine. If you are an IET member, log in to your account and the discounts will automatically be applied.

Learn more about IET membership 

Recommend Title Publication to library

You must fill out fields marked with: *

Librarian details
Your details
Why are you recommending this title?
Select reason:
IET Circuits, Devices & Systems — Recommend this title to your library

Thank you

Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

This study proposes passive voltage shifters that shift the median value of an analogue signal by either a multiple or a fraction of the amplitude of the input signal in positive or negative directions. The proposed voltage shifters are powered by the input signal, making them particularly attractive for applications such as implantable devices where power is critical. The primitive configuration of the voltage shifters also makes them well suited for high-frequency applications. A detailed mathematical treatment that quantifies the principle of the voltage shifters is presented. Factors affecting the performance of the proposed voltage shifters are examined in detail.


    1. 1)
      • 1. Yu, H., Bashirullah, R.: ‘A low power ASK clock and data recovery circuit for wireless implantable electronics’. Proc. IEEE Customs Integrated Circuits Conf., 2006, pp. 249252.
    2. 2)
      • 2. Lee, T., Lee, C., Ciou, Y., Huang, C., Wang, C.: ‘C-less and R-less low-frequency ASK demodulator for wireless implantable devices’. Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Integrated Circuits, 2007, pp. 604607.
    3. 3)
      • 3. Ghovanloo, M., Atluri, S.: ‘A wide-band power-efficient inductive wireless link for implantable microelectronic devices using multiple carriers’, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I., 2007, 54, (10), pp. 22112221 (doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2007.905187).
    4. 4)
      • 4. Shiue, M., Yao, K., Chen, T., Chang, Y., Su, C.: ‘A truly low-cost high-efficiency ASK demodulator based on self-sampling scheme for bioimplantable applications’, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, 2008, 55, (6), pp. 14641467 (doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2008.916422).
    5. 5)
      • 5. Liu, W., Vichienchom, K., Clements, M., et al: ‘A neuro-stimulus chip with telemetry unit for retinal prosthetic device’, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 2000, 35, (10), pp. 14871497 (doi: 10.1109/4.871327).
    6. 6)
      • 6. Lee, S., Lee, S.: ‘An implantable wireless bidirectional communication microstimulator for neuromuscular stimulation’, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I., 2005, 52, (12), pp. 25262538 (doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2005.857770).
    7. 7)
      • 7. Lee, C., Ciou, Y., Huang, C., Wang, C.: ‘All-MOS ASK demodulator for low-frequency applications’, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II., 2008, 55, (5), pp. 474478 (doi: 10.1109/TCSII.2007.912687).
    8. 8)
      • 8. Cho, N., Song, S., Lee, J., Kim, S., Kim, S., Yoo, H.: ‘A 8-μW 0.3-mm2 RF-powered transponder with temperature sensor for wireless environmental monitoring’. Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems, May 2005, Vol. 5, pp. 47634766.
    9. 9)
      • 9. Curty, J., Joehl, N., Dehollain, C., Declercq, M.: ‘Remotely powered addressable UHF RFID integrated system’, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 2005, 40, (11), pp. 21932202 (doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2005.857352).
    10. 10)
      • 10. Chi, B., Yao, J., Han, S., Xie, X., Li, G., Wang, Z.: ‘Low-power transceiver analog front-end circuits for bidirectional high data rate wireless telemetry in medical endoscopy applications’, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 2007, 54, (7), pp. 12911299 (doi: 10.1109/TBME.2006.889768).
    11. 11)
      • 11. Chi, B., Yao, J., Han, S., Xie, X., Li, G., Wang, Z.: ‘A 2.4 GHz low power wireless transceiver analog front-end for endoscopy capsule system’, Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Process., 2007, 51, pp. 5971 (doi: 10.1007/s10470-007-9036-x).
    12. 12)
      • 12. Liu, J., Ye, L., Deng, Z., Zhao, J., Liao, H.: ‘A 1.8 V to 10 V CMOS shifter for RFID transponders’. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology, 2010, pp. 491493.
    13. 13)
      • 13. Baek, J., Chun, J., Kwon, K.: ‘A power-efficient voltage upconverter for embedded EEPROM application’, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II., 2010, 57, (6), pp. 435439 (doi: 10.1109/TCSII.2010.2048351).
    14. 14)
      • 14. Otsuka, N., Horowitz, M.: ‘Circuit techniques for 1.5 V power supply flash memory’, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 1997, 32, (8), pp. 12171230 (doi: 10.1109/4.604078).
    15. 15)
      • 15. Umezawa, A., Kuriyama, M., Taura, T., et al: ‘Wordline voltage generating system for low-power low-voltage flash memories’, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 2001, 36, (1), pp. 5563 (doi: 10.1109/4.896229).
    16. 16)
      • 16. Chavan, A., MacDonald, E.: ‘Ultra low voltage shifters to interface sub and super threshold reconfigurable logic cells’. Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf., 2008, pp. 16.
    17. 17)
      • 17. Tan, S., Sun, X.: ‘Low power CMOS shifters by bootstrapping technique’, IEE Electron. Lett., 2002, 38, (16), pp. 876878 (doi: 10.1049/el:20020627).
    18. 18)
      • 18. L, ütkemeier, S., R, ückert, U.: ‘A subthreshold to above-threshold shifter comprising a Wilson current mirror’, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, 2010, 57, (9), pp. 721724 (doi: 10.1109/TCSII.2010.2056110).
    19. 19)
      • 19. Wooter, S., Calhoun, B., Blalock, T.: ‘An energy-efficient subthreshold converter in 130 nm CMOS’, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, 2009, 57, (4), pp. 290294 (doi: 10.1109/TCSII.2010.2043471).
    20. 20)
      • 20. Hasanbegovic, A., Aunet, S.: ‘Low-power subthreshold to above threshold shifter in 90 nm and 65 nm process’, Microprocessors Microsyst., 2011, 35, (1), pp. 19 (doi: 10.1016/j.micpro.2010.11.003).
    21. 21)
      • 21. Lai, X., Yuan, F.: ‘An ultra-low power voltage shifter for passive wireless microsystems’. Proc. IEEE Mid-West Symp. Circuits and Systems, Seoul, August 2011, pp. 14.
    22. 22)
      • 22. Gray, P., Hurst, P., Lewis, S., Meyer, R.: ‘Analysis and design of analog integrated circuits’ (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2001, 4th edn.).
    23. 23)
      • 23. Ghovanloo, M., Najafi, K.: ‘A wideband frequency-shift keying wireless link for inductively powered biomedical implants’, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I., 2004, 51, (12), pp. 23742383 (doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2004.838144).

Related content

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address