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Wideband injection-locked frequency divider based on a process and temperature compensated ring oscillator

Wideband injection-locked frequency divider based on a process and temperature compensated ring oscillator

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The authors propose a ring-based injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) incorporating a novel process and temperature compensation technique. The core of the ILFD consists of a process and temperature compensated ring oscillator based on modified symmetric load delay elements. Measurement results show that the natural frequency of oscillation of the ring oscillator varies only 4.4% across six different chips and for a temperature range of 0–80°C. The ILFD possesses a wide locking range over process corners as well as a wide temperature range because of the proposed compensation technique and the incorporation of the delay cell architecture in the design. A calibration circuitry can be used to further enhance the locking range. Measurement results show that the proposed ILFD functions as a divide-by-4 for an input frequency range of 1.8–3.2 GHz for an input power level as low as −3 dBm. The worst-case power consumption was approximately 2 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The proposed ILFD can be used as a low-power prescaler for multi-band applications.


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