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Swelling characteristics of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides

Swelling characteristics of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides

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The swelling of proton-exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3 due to the LiNbO3-HNbO3 transformation is reported. The induced surface stresses could make a significant contribution to the index change and birefringence. The dependence of the swelling on the proton-exchange time and temperature has been characterised and agrees well with diffusion theory.

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