Sampling-mode scanning electron microscope for probing fast voltage waveforms

Sampling-mode scanning electron microscope for probing fast voltage waveforms

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Sampling-oscilloscope-type circuitry has been interfaced with an s.e.m., which allows the resolution of fast voltage wave-forms on devices up to gigahertz repetition frequencies. The sampling is performed by 100 ps-wide beam pulses, at a maximum sampling rate of 1 MHz. Voltage contrast linearisation has a resolution of 100 mV at an average current of 10−11 A for a 12.5 kV beam and a settling time of 30 ms.


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