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access icon free 84 GBd (168 Gbit/s) PAM-4 3.7 Vpp power DAC in InP DHBT for short reach and long haul optical networks

The architecture and performances of a multilevel driver for pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) formats, designed and fabricated in 0.7 µm InP double-heterojunction bipolar transistor technology, are reported. The driver part is based on a power-DAC architecture which is integrated with the multiplexing stage composed of three 2:1 selectors. Up to 100 GS/s operation was validated and PAM-2, -4, -8 signals with high amplitude were measured. In particular, PAM-4 at 84 GBd and PAM-8 at 64 GBd operation was demonstrated with, respectively, a 3.7 and 4 Vpp differential output signal. This compact driver circuit is characterised by the highest merit factor in terms of high amplitude and the transmission capacity for an electronically generated multilevel signal.


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      • 1. Raybon, G., Randel, S., Adamiecki, A., Winzer, P.J., Salamanca, L., Urbanke, R., Chandrasekhar, S., Konczykowska, A., Jorge, F., Dupuy, J., Buhl, L.L., Draving, S., Grove, M., Rush, K.: ‘1 Tb/s dual-carrier 80 GBaud PDM-16QAM WDM transmission at 5.2 b/s/Hz over 3200 km’. 2012 IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC), Burlingame, CA, USA, September 2012, pp. 12, doi: 10.1109/IPCon.2012.6359319.
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      • 8. Godin, J., Dupuy, J.-Y., Jorge, F., Blache, F., Riet, M., Nodjiadjim, V., Berdaguer, P., Duval, B., Konczykowska, A.: ‘InP DHBT MUX-drivers for very high symbol rate optical communications’. 2014 IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp. (CSICs), Portland, OR, USA, October 2014, pp. 14, doi: 10.1109/CSICS.2014.6978562.
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      • 9. Godin, J., Nodjiadjim, V., Riet, M., Berdaguer, P., Drisse, O., Derouin, E., Konczykowska, A., Moulu, J., Dupuy, J.-Y., Jorge, F., Gentner, J.L., Scavennec, A., Johansen, T., Krozer, V.: ‘Submicron InP DHBT technology for high-speed high-swing mixed-signal ICs’. Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Symp., 2008, CSIC'08, La Jolla, CA, USA, October 2008, pp. 14, doi: 10.1109/CSICS.2008.28.
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      • 4. Randel, S., Pilori, D., Corteselli, S., Raybon, G., Adamiecki, A., Gnauck, A., Chandrasekhar, S., Winzer, P., Altenhain, L., Bielik, A., Schmid, R.: ‘All-electronic flexibly programmable 864 Gb/s single-carrier PDM-64-QAM’. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), 2014, San Francisco, CA, USA, March 2014, pp. 13, doi: 10.1364/OFC.2014.Th5C.8.
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      • 2. Available at
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      • 5. 6-bit DAC datasheet. Available at

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