Your browser does not support JavaScript!

access icon openaccess Additively manufactured heterogeneous substrates for three-dimensional control of local permittivity

The concept of using additive manufacturing as a method to construct heterogeneous substrates from a single building material via stereolithography is introduced. The dynamic variation of air cavities within the bulk material is used to control the effective permittivity of the host medium. The digitally driven layer process enables full three-dimensional variation of the local permittivity. The high resolution of stereolithography enables sub-millimetre control of air inclusion features. Measurements of the effective permittivity with different air fractions have been compared to analytical results.


    1. 1)
    2. 2)
      • 4. Nassar, I.T., Weller, T.M.: ‘An electrically-small, 3-D antenna fabricated with additive manufacturing’. IEEE Topical Conf. Power Amplifiers for Wireless and Radio Applications (PAWR), Santa Clara, USA, January, 2013, pp. 9193, doi: 10.1109/PAWR.2013.6490199.
    3. 3)
    4. 4)
      • 3. Lewin, L.: ‘The electrical constants of a material loaded with spherical particles’, Electr. Eng., Part III: Radio Commun. Eng., 1947, 94, (27), pp. 6568, doi: 10.1049/ji-3-2.1947.0013.
    5. 5)
    6. 6)
      • 7. Krupka, J., Greyer, R.G., Baker-Jarvis, J., Ceremuga, J.: ‘Measurements of the complex permittivity of microwave circuit board substrates using split dielectric resonator and re-entrant cavity techniques’. Eighth Int. Conf. Dielectric Materials, Measurements and Applications (DMMA), Bath, UK, 23–26 September 1996, pp. 2124, doi: 10.1049/cp:19960982.
    7. 7)
      • 5. Meissner, C.: ‘Materials by design’. Science & Technology Review, 2012, March, pp. 1420, Available at

Related content

This article has following corresponding article(s):
new foundations
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address