The Transmitter

The Transmitter

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The transmitter is a key element in the design of the transceiver. The transmitter provides a means of sending out the information, over the channel, with the power necessary to provide coverage to the intended receiver. Several types of modulation methods were discussed with their advantages and disadvantages. There are many types of spread spectrum transmitters that provide process gain to reduce the effects of jammers and to allow more efficient use of the spectrum for multiple users. Digital systems have many advantages over analog systems and different techniques were discussed for optimizing the digital data link.

Chapter Contents:

  • 2.1 Basic Functions of the Transmitter
  • 2.1.1 Antenna
  • 2.1.2 Transmit/Receive Control
  • 2.1.3 Power Amplifier
  • 2.1.4 Upconversion
  • 2.1.5 Sum and Difference Frequencies Generated in the Upconversion Process
  • 2.2 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
  • 2.2.1 Maximum Power Transfer Principle
  • 2.3 Digital Communications
  • 2.3.1 Digital versus Analog Communications
  • 2.3.2 Baseband Modulation of Digital and Analog Systems
  • 2.3.3 Software Programmable Radios and Cognitive Radios
  • 2.4 Digital Modulation
  • 2.4.1 Phase-Shift Keying
  • 2.4.2 Binary Phase-Shift Keying
  • 2.4.3 Differential Phase-Shift Keying
  • 2.4.4 Quadrature (Quaternary) Phase-Shift Keying
  • 2.4.5 Offset QPSK
  • 2.4.6 Higher Order PSK
  • 2.4.7 Variations in PSK Schemes
  • 2.4.8 π/4 Differential QPSK
  • 2.4.9 Differential 8-Level PSK
  • 2.4.10 16-Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
  • 2.4.11 Phasor Constellations and Noise Immunity
  • 2.4.12 Continuous Phase PSK
  • 2.4.13 Spectral Regrowth
  • 2.4.14 Minimum Shift Keying
  • 2.4.15 Frequency-Shift Keying
  • 2.4.16 Sidelobe Reduction Methods
  • 2.4.17 Ideal Shaping Filter
  • 2.5 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
  • 2.5.1 Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
  • 2.5.2 Spread Spectrum
  • 2.5.3 Jammer Resistance
  • 2.5.4 Despreading to Realize Process Gain in the Spread Spectrum System
  • 2.5.5 Maximal Length Sequence Codes
  • 2.5.6 Maximal Length PN Code Generator
  • 2.5.7 Maximal Length PN Code Taps
  • 2.5.8 Gold Codes
  • 2.5.9 Other Codes
  • 2.5.10 Spectral Lines in the Frequency Domain
  • 2.6 Other Forms of Spread Spectrum Transmissions
  • 2.6.1 Time Hopping
  • 2.6.2 Chirped-FM
  • 2.7 Multiple Users
  • 2.7.1 Other Methods for Multiuser Techniques
  • 2.7.2 Orthogonal Signals
  • 2.7.3 Quadrature Phase Detection of Two Signals
  • 2.7.4 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
  • 2.7.5 Other OFDM Techniques
  • 2.8 Power Control
  • 2.9 Summary

Inspec keywords: radio transceivers; spread spectrum communication; modulation

Other keywords: digital systems; transceiver; digital data link; modulation methods; spread spectrum transmitters; receiver; analog systems

Subjects: Modulation and coding methods; Radio links and equipment

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